3-13-09_Notes - Bacteria replicate so quickly Neuraminidase...

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- Bacteria replicate so quickly - Neuraminidase is an enzyme that removes sialic acid to enable a virus to enter the cell  and carry out infection - The anti-influenza drug, Tamiflu, is an inhibitor of this enzyme - Sialidase, removes sialic acid as well - It anchors itself to surface of the cell and removes sialic acid residues - Triggers an invaginatation of the cell membrane, so creat e avesicle going inward, rather  than outward - Surround it with a membrane of its own, brings it into the cell - Modifies it, to enable DNA to escape from cell - Once pharmaceutical companies realized this, they created a drug with similar  characteristics to competitively inhibit the enzyme  - Oligosaccharides attached to erythropoietin (EPO) a protein that increases red blood cell  production  - Recombinant EPO is still made by AMGEN - Supposed to be given to anemic people so they can build up their blood cell supply - Natural EPO has four end-linked oligosaccharides, that don’t have sailic acid, but have  galactose, it also has a serine  - Polysaccharides weigh almost as much as the protein  - Natural EPO will have all of these proteins, while artificial EPO will have none of them  Inside a cell - Cells have many functions inside that can be formed into a gel state - Microtubules, rigid filaments, are important features in cells - Accompanied by breakdown of nuclear membranes - Very important feature   have a double membrane  -
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