18 - Middleware"Glue code between network operating system...

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Middleware "Glue" code between network operating system and customer applications In support of distributed heterogeneous computation Similar in concept to architectural connectors
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Context Growth of networked machines – Increasing customer base Specialization of hardware resources Increasingly powerful applications – Integration of existing components – Negotiation
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Needs • Abstractions – Interfaces (APIs) – Standards • Notations • Tools – Design – Code generation
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Characteristic Issues 1. Network communication 2. Coordination 3. Reliability 4. Scalability 5. Heterogeneity
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1. Network Communication Data transport • Transactions (ACID) – A tomic (all or none) – C onsistency-preserving (database integrity) – I solated (other transactions can’t see intermediate states) – D urable (committed and persistent) Error handling / reliable delivery
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Data Transportability marshalling, serialization Bit order Byte order Character sets • Alignment Word length Organization (of constituent pieces) Self definition (identity)
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2. Coordination • Synchronization Synchronous : client blocked while waiting for service Asynchronous : server initiated Multicast (push) Hardware stop/restart Activation/deactivation (persistent state) Server concurrency
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Concurrency Control Session layer responsible for synchronization Blocking (synchronous) • Non-blocking – Client (polling); deferred synchronization; pull – Server; asynchronous; push
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3. Reliability Assurance policies (communication) – Best-effort – At-most-once – At-least-once – Exactly-once Reliability/performance tradeoff • Replication
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4. Scalability
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  • Spring '10
  • spen
  • Web Services, Service-oriented architecture, Message-oriented middleware, procedural middleware, transactional middleware

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