Philosophy The Last Lecture

Philosophy The Last Lecture - Philosophy The Last Lecture....

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Philosophy The Last Lecture. 22:23 Political Philosophy through Science Fiction. Course Summary  Memory, Memories, Do you Remember? Social Principles: do the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few? Star Trek II: the wrath of Khan (Paramount 1982) – the needs of the many  outweigh the needs of the few. what do your intuitions tell you? – the men in the boat, the runaway train case,  the organ transplant case. Teleology vs. deontology Teleology: the rightness of an action, law, or social policy depends entirely  upon the end brought about by it, or its contribution to that end.  Deontology: the rightness of an action, law, or social policy, similar to the  golden rule. United States vs. Holmes (1842) Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) Utilitarianism – the measure of right and wrong. (Fragment on Government,  1776) Act Utilitarianism (df): the morally right act for an agent A at a time t, is that act  available to A at t, that will maximize the total amount of good in the world  (that will have the best consequences).  Normative vs. Descriptive Theories
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descriptive theories purport to tell us how the world is.  normative theories offer an ideal for how the world ought to be.  Lloyed’s Psychological Soporiferous Egoism (df): the only motive of voluntary human behavior is the desire to sleep.  Sanctions physical moral/social political religious “The business of the government is to promote the happiness of society, by  punishing and rewarding” (Bentham) Hedonic Calculus Quantity of pleasure being equal, pushpin is as good as poetry The source of pleasure is irrelevant to its value Then we looked at who counted?? people, bugs, elephants, cockroaches,  babies, dogs, amoebas? Review of Bentham right action maximizes the balance of pleasure over pain the effects of actions on all sentient creatures must be taken into account
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sanctions motivate egoists to behave as utilitarianism requires the hedonic calculus picks out the right act Bentham as a predecessor of modern cost/benefit analysis. “Commensurability of Experiences” assumes Homogeneity of values – there 
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This note was uploaded on 05/03/2010 for the course PHIL 225g taught by Professor Mc cann during the Spring '10 term at USC.

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Philosophy The Last Lecture - Philosophy The Last Lecture....

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