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Unformatted text preview: MAT 330: Fourier Series and Partial Differential Equations Professor Sergiu Klainerman Problem Set 1 Rik Sengupta rsengupt @ princeton.edu February 6, 2010 1. Stein and Shakarchi, p. 24, problem 4 For z ∈ C , we define the complex exponential by e z = ∞ X n =0 z n n ! . (a) Prove that the above definition makes sense, by showing that the series converges for every complex number z . Moreover, show that the convergence is uniform on every bounded subset of C . Solution. First we will show that the definition makes sense. We will use the ratio test to show that, once we fix z ∈ C , the function e z as defined in the problem is welldefined, i.e. the series is convergent. Recall that the ratio test states that the series ∞ X n =0 a n with nonzero terms a j ∈ C converges and diverges according as the quantity L = lim n →∞ a n +1 a n is less than or greater than 1. For L = 1, the ratio test is inconclusive. So here, first of all, it is easy to see that e is simply 1, from the power series definition, and therefore the case z = 0 is welldefined. If z 6 = 0, then the premises of the ratio test are satisfied, i.e. for all terms are nonzero complex numbers. Then, lim n →∞ a n +1 a n = lim n →∞ z n +1 z n · n ! ( n + 1)! = lim n →∞ z n + 1 = lim n →∞  z  n + 1 = 0 < 1 . 1 So, the series converges uniformly for fixed z ∈ C , and therefore is welldefined as a function. So, the definition makes sense. We will show uniform convergence on the bounded sets of C by means of the Weierstrass Mtest. Recall that the Weierstrass Mtest states that, given a sequence of real or complex valued functions { f n } on a set A , with positive constants M n ∈ R satisfying  f n ( x )  ≤ M n for all x ∈ A , for every n ≥ 1, the series ∞ X n =1 f n ( x ) converges uniformly on A if the series ∞ X n =1 M n ( x ) converges. So now, notice that any bounded subset of C by definition is a subset of some neighbor hood N r of radius r of the origin in the complex plane. We are looking for an upper bound M n on each term of the series, with M n independent of the position in the subset considered, i.e. a term M n for each term satisfying z n n ! ≤ M n , ∀ z ∈ N r . But such terms are easy to find, because we have z n n ! =  z  n n ! ≤ r n n ! , so we can simply take M n = r n n ! . So, from the Weierstrass Mtest, it is now enough to check that ∑ M n is convergent. Again, this is trivial, and this can be done most easily with the ratio test once again. It is easy to see that lim n →∞ M n +1 M n = lim n →∞ r n +1 r n · n ! ( n + 1)! = lim n →∞ r n + 1 = 0 < 1 . So, the series ∑ M n is convergent, and therefore, by the Weierstrass Mtest, the original series e z = ∞ X n =0 z n n !...
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2010 for the course MAT 330 taught by Professor Sergiuklainermann during the Spring '10 term at Princeton.
 Spring '10
 SERGIUKLAINERMANN
 Differential Equations, Equations, Partial Differential Equations, Fourier Series

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