Hum Hist handout 4

Hum Hist handout 4 - Human History Week 3, lecture 2...

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Human History Week 3, lecture 2 Domestication 1/21/10 The hunter-gatherer Garden of Eden Beginning of the “Long Summer” around 12,700 BCE is energy transition: more sunlight means more energy for plants; more plants mean more energy for animals that eat them; both mean more energy for human predators on plants and other animals Do humans react like plants and other animals (reproducing faster, spreading geographically) or are humans different? Depends on location—in “Lucky Latitudes” (20-30°N in Old World, 15°S-20°N in New World) wild foods (barley, wheat, rye, millet, rice in Old World; peanuts, squash, teosinte) flourish; so to large wild mammals (gazelles, boars, llamas, horses) Huge yields: in southwest Asian “Hilly Flanks” 2.5 acres can yield 1 ton of seeds; 1 calorie of work can generate 50 calories of food Range of human options: (1) work less; (2) eat more; (3) reproduce more Results: (a) rapid reproduction; (b) clustering (bands of a dozen or so people in Ice Age become communities of 100+ in Hilly Flanks by 12,000 BCE); (c) settle own—rise of permanent villages like ‘Ain Mallaha (Israel) The first villages Domestication of humans: settle down, permanent houses, painted walls; bury and look after the dead (often under houses) Permanent villages in Hilly Flanks generate garbage: by 11,000 BCE villages encourage
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Hum Hist handout 4 - Human History Week 3, lecture 2...

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