Hum Hist 2 ho 6

Hum Hist 2 ho 6 - Human History Week 3, lecture 2 State...

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Human History State crises in the 17th century 4/15/10 Week 3, lecture 2 The age of troubles All over Eurasia, states struggle to respond to the growth of the 16th-17th centuries Warlordism and Manchu (Qing) conquest in China, 1644-1680s; Mughal Empire problems in early 17th-century India; intense Sunni-Shiite wars along Safavid Persian-Ottoman Turkish border; authority of Turkish sultans collapses in 1640s, starting 50 years of civil wars; Muscovy breaks down in 1603, starting 50-year “Age of Troubles”; noble-royal conflict in France breaks down in la fronde (1648-53); English Civil Wars, 1642-46 and 1648; Thirty Years’ War in Germany, 1618-48 Weight of numbers Driving force all across Eurasia: population growth following the Black Death Living standards generally rise 1350-1500, because plague improves land:labor ratio Living standards generally fall 1500-1650, as land:labor ratio worsens Clear to everyone at the time: county prefect near Nanjing, 1609, reports that in the old days “Every family was self-sufficient with a house to live in, land to cultivate, hills from which to cut firewood, gardens in which to grow vegetables, [but now] nine out of ten are impoverished . .. Avarice is without limit, flesh injures bone . .. Alas!” Similar comments from a traveler in Germany, 1550: “In the past they ate differently at
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Hum Hist 2 ho 6 - Human History Week 3, lecture 2 State...

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