10-COMPUTER_BUSES

10-COMPUTER_BUSES - Principles of Computer Architecture...

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Principles of Computer Architecture Chapter 9: Input and Output
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Chapter Contents 8.1 Simple Bus Architectures 8.2 Bridge-Based Bus Architectures 8.3 Communication Methodologies 8.4 Case Study: Communication on the Intel Pentium Architecture
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Bus: If the CPU is the computer's brain, its "buses" are the branches of its nervous system. It is only through the buses that the CPU can communicate or share data with the hard drive, the graphics card, the sound card, the CD-ROM or DVD drive, and the computer's cache and main memories. There are several . different types of buses
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Simple Bus Architecture A simplified motherboard of a personal computer (top view):
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Simplified Illustration of a Bus
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MHz Bus Clock 100
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Multiple Buses
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Performances of CPU: 1- Number of address pins 2- Number of data pins example buses: ISA EISA PCI USB
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Industry Standard Architecture (ISA): This is the most widely used bus, because it is the original. If you open up an old 286, you'll see a couple of these. An 8-bit ISA slot is capable of 0.625MB/sec. transfer rate between the card and the motherboard. Later versions of this bus were 16-bit, capable of 2MB/sec. This is still slow, but cards such as modems do not require anything faster than this. If you look at your motherboard's slots, the longer ones are the ISAs. If they are all .one size, they are all ISAs
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ISA BUS: Industry Standard Architecture IBM PC standard on 8088-based systems It has 62 signal lines: 20 memory address lines + 8 data lines + memory R/W + I/O read + I/O write + other signals for requesting and granting interrupts and using DMA. It was a very simple bus PROBLEM When the 80286 capable of addressing 16M came into market!
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Solution Extend the bus by adding a second edge connector ( 36 lines) on the bottom of the board
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ISA Slots
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ISA Card Mixed ISA Slots : Earlier motherboards came with a mix of 8-bit (left) and 16-bit (right) slots such as this one
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Advantages - A 16-bit data bus was implemented with the addition of 8 extra data lines. - Maximum Addressable space was increased to 16MB with an additional 4 address lines (to give a total of 24). - 5 additional edge-triggered IRQ lines were added. - Partial support for multiple bus masters was provided with the introduction of the signal. - Maximum bandwidth of 5.3 MB/s - 8 MHz bus clock speed.
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Applications: The main reasons that keep ISA on the market are, truly enormous base of existing peripherals using the standard and the fact that there are many devices for which ISA is still more then sufficient. The ISA bus expanded to 16 bits in 1984. Despite the fact, that almost two decades have passed it is remained largely unchanged. Most Computers produced today include ISA buses usually the ISA buses used for slower devices such as Modem, Hard disk controllers and Speakers.
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Imagine that a 1024 x 768 screen used for true color (3 bytes/pixel). For smooth motion (30 screens/s) we need a data rate of ……? Amount of data : 2.25 MB
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2010 for the course CS 333 taught by Professor Alarabi during the Spring '10 term at DeVry Cleveland D..

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10-COMPUTER_BUSES - Principles of Computer Architecture...

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