ISA-1 - 4-1Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005Principles of Computer ArchitectureChapter 10 The Instruction Set Architecture4-2Principles

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Unformatted text preview: 4-1Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005Principles of Computer ArchitectureChapter 10: The Instruction Set Architecture4-2Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005The Instruction Set Architecture•The Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) view of a machine corresponds to the machine and assembly language levels.• A compiler translates a high level language, which is architecture independent, into machine language, which is architecture dependent.• An assembler translates assembly language programs into executable binary codes.• For fully compiled languages like C and Fortran, the binary codes are executed directly by the target machine. 4-3Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005The System Bus Model of a Computer System, Revisited•A compiled program is copied from a hard disk to the memory. The CPU reads instructions and data from the memory, executes the instructions, and stores the results back into the memory.4-4Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005The Fetch-Execute Cycle• The steps that the control unit carries out in executing a program are:(1) Fetch the next instruction to be executed from memory.(2) Decode the opcode.(3) Read operand(s) from main memory, if any.(4) Execute the instruction and store results.(5) Go to step 1.This is known as the fetch-execute cycle. 4-5Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005Data Flow (Fetch Diagram)1234564-6Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005Instruction Execution Cycle1.Fetch instruction at IP into IR.2.Increment IP to point to next instruction.3.Decode instruction in IR4.If instruction requires memory access, A.Determine memory address.B.Fetch operand from memory into a CPU register, or send operand from a CPU register to memory.5.Execute instruction6.Go to step 1.4-7Principles of Computer Architecture © 20054-8Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005Instruction Format•Divided into fields•For example:4-9Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005Instruction Types•Data processing: +, -, shift, or•Data storage (main memory): store, load, move•Data movement (I/O)•Program flow control: jump, subroutine call4-10Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2010 for the course CS 333 taught by Professor Alarabi during the Spring '10 term at DeVry Cleveland D..

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ISA-1 - 4-1Principles of Computer Architecture © 2005Principles of Computer ArchitectureChapter 10 The Instruction Set Architecture4-2Principles

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