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PHI 306 Exam 1 Study Guide

PHI 306 Exam 1 Study Guide - PHI 306 Exam 1 Study Guide...

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PHI 306 Exam 1 Study Guide What is a Utilitarian? a person who believes that rightness can be defined in terms of goodness (net value, utility) What is the difference between an Act Utilitarian and a Rule Utilitarian? an act utilitarian believes that an act is right iff. it produces at least as much good (net value, utility) as any alternative act a rule utilitarian believes that an act is right iff. it is done in accordance with the rule, which when followed produces at least as much good (net value, utility) as following any alternative rule would therefore the difference is that the RU is looking at the consequence of the rule you follow, instead of the consequence of the act Why did the Utilitarians come up with Rule Utilitarianism when they already had Act Utilitarianism? Act Utilitarianism has many objections to it, including case of intentions, which Rule Utilitarians want to clear up Instead of looking at consequences of actions, we should look at consequences of rules What is a Deontologist? a person who believes that rightness cannot be defined in terms of goodness Also believe: some acts are right even though they don't produce as much good as some alternative there's at least one moral rule which it is wrong to break, even when it does more good What is the difference between a Deontologist and any Utilitarian? deontologist: rightness cannot be defined in terms of goodness utilitarian: rightness can be defined in terms of goodness What is the difference between the Deontologist and the (Primitive) Rule Utilitarian? deontologist: conformance utility does not matter PRU: an act is morally right iff. it is done in accordance with a moral rule such that there is no other moral rule that has a higher conformance utility (the net pleasure-pain that would result from everyone following that rule)
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What were the examples given in class (both in explaining the Deontologist position and
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