PHI 306 Exam 2 Study Guide

PHI 306 Exam 2 Study Guide - PHI 306 Exam 2 Study Guide: 1....

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PHI 306 Exam 2 Study Guide: 1. State both forms of Ethical Relativism. Cultural Ethical Relativism: there's no such thing as just plain rightness or wrongness; rightness and wrongness are relational properties that relate acts to the preferences of a culture Individual Ethical Relativism: ". ..... ".... an individual 2. State Ethical Absolutism. Explain why both the Kantian and the Situational Ethicist are Absolutists. What is the primary difference between them? Absolutist: a person who believes that relativism is false (rightness and wrongness exist but are not relational properties), the truth of moral statements does not depend on people's preferences Kantian Absolutist: there are some true moral generalizations that have no exceptions; preferences can enter into a situation that helps to determine the truth of a moral statement, but the preferences are never all that matters Situational Ethicist: the truth of moral statements always depends on the situation, there are no true moral generalizations 3. What are the differences between the Ethical Relativists and the Ethical Absolutists? Ethical relativist: moral rightness and wrongness are relational properties that relate acts to the preferences of persons or cultures Ethical Absolutist: moral rightness and wrongness are absolute in that they are not relational properties that relate acts to the preferences of persons or cultures A relativist cannot be an absolutist because there is no necessary connection between the type of act and preference 4. Why might the belief that we ought not to impose our values on other persons and cultures, if true, not give us more reason to accept Ethical Relativism than Ethical Absolutism? Example of Mussolini marching into Ethiopia and taking over--- he explained that he believed cultural relativism to be true---but he wanted to establish his own president and impose his values on them because it is what his “people” prefer. Neither a relativist nor an absolutist is supported by imposing values 5. State the three forms of “Relativism” that Feldman defines (in the article entitled ‘Relativism’). Then state the objections that he has toward the last two (Conventionalism and Conceptual Relativism). Belief relativism: it is possible that there is a kind of action, such that one society believes that actions of that kind are morally right and another society does not believe that actions of that kind are morally right. Conventionalism: An act is morally right if and only if it is permitted by the conventions of its society. Objections-The reformers dilemma: 1. If R4 is true, anyone who advocates reform is mistaken
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2. Sometimes people who advocate reform are not mistaken 3. Therefore R4 is not true Conceptual Relativism: There is no such property as rightness; rightness is a relation between acts and societies Objections- No-Conflicts Argument: 1. If conceptual relativism is true, there is no conflict between the visitor from S1 and the people from S2 2. There is a conflict between the visitor from S1 and the people from S2
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PHI 306 Exam 2 Study Guide - PHI 306 Exam 2 Study Guide: 1....

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