chapter 2-6 slides per page - TOPICS The Atomic Theory of...

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1 TOPICS • The Atomic Theory of Matter • The Discovery of Atomic Structure • The Modern View of Atomic Structure • Atomic Weights • The Periodic Table • Molecules and Molecular Compounds • Ions and Ionic Compounds • Naming Inorganic Compounds • Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Postulates of Dalton’s Theory 19 th Century (1) All matter is made of atoms ( 2) All atoms of a given element are identical in both weight and chemical properties (3) A chemical reaction involves only the combination, separation, or rearrangement of atoms; atoms are neither created nor destroyed in the course of ordinary chemical reaction (4) Compounds are formed by the combination of different atoms in the ratio of small, whole numbers Formation of Cathode Rays CRT experiment: Discovery of the Electron and its Properties • Any electrode material produces identical rays, so the ray particles must be a part of all matter • Cathode ray particles are called electrons • Charge to mass ratio of an electron is 1.76x10 8 coulomb/g Millikan’s experiment Millikan’s oil drop experiment CONCLUSIONS: • calculated charges on the oil drops were multiples of 1.60x10 -19 C and therefore the charge on the electron must be 1.60x10 -19 C • from the charge and the charge to mass ratio the mass of the electron was calculated mass of electron = 9.10x10 -28 g
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2 Radioactivity (spontaneous emission of radiation) Radioactivity Conclusion from the experiment: Atom consists of neutral, positively, and negatively charged entities. Thomson’s assumption:
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chapter 2-6 slides per page - TOPICS The Atomic Theory of...

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