chapter 9-6 slides per page - Topics Ionic Bonding Electron...

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1 Topics • Ionic Bonding • Electron Configuration of Ions • Ionic Radii • Covalent Bonding • Bond Polarity and Electronegativity • Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas • Formal Charge • Resonance Structures • Exceptions to the Octet Rule • Bond Length and Bond Order • Bond Energy : : F . : F . Mg .. Mg [ F ] : : -2 + [ ] : : - Lattice Energy; Born - Haber Cycle 1) Na(s) Æ Na(g) Δ H 1 = 108 kJ 2) 1/2Cl 2 (g) Æ Cl(g) Δ H 2 = 120 kJ 3) Na(g) Æ Na + (g) + e Δ H 3 = 496 kJ 4) Cl(g) + e Æ Cl - (g) Δ H 4 = -349 kJ 5) Na + (g) + Cl - (g) Æ NaCl(s) Δ H 5 = -U _________________________ Direct route: Na(s) + 1/2Cl 2 (g) Æ NaCl(s) Δ H f o = -411kJ Direct route: step 1 + step 2 + step 3 +step 4 + step 5 Δ H f o = Δ H 1 + Δ H 2 + Δ H 3 + Δ H 4 + Δ H 5 -411kJ = (108+120+496-349)kJ - U -411kJ = 375 kJ - U U = 786 kJ Separation of ionic solid into ions in a gas state: NaCl(s) Æ Na + (g) + Cl - (g) Δ H rxn = U = +786 kJ/mol - Crystalline, hard, brittle (crack without deforming) - High melting temperature - High boiling temperature - Melts and aqueous solutions conduct electricity Properties of Ionic Compounds
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2 The ions composing an ionic liquid. butylpyridinium nitrate Electron Configuration of Ions Al Al 3+ Mn Mn 4+ Comparison of Atomic and Ionic Radii Isoelectronic Ions Covalent Bonds Single covalent bond : HH : H : : Cl Coordinate covalent bond Potential Energy Curve for H 2 Multiple Bonds Double covalent bond Triple covalent bond
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chapter 9-6 slides per page - Topics Ionic Bonding Electron...

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