chapter 15-6 slides per page

chapter 15-6 slides per page - Topics The Concept of...

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1 Topics • The Concept of Equilibrium • The Equilibrium Constant • Heterogeneous Equilibria • Calculating Equilibrium Constants • Applications of Equilibrium Constants • Le Chatelier’s Principle The Concept of Equilibrium For a simple reaction A(g) Æ B(g) Forward reaction: A Æ B rate r f = k f [A] Reverse reaction: B Æ A rate r r = k r [B] At the equilibrium r f = r r k f [A] = k r [B] c K constant ] [ ] [ = = = r f k k A B The Concept of Equilibrium nRT pV = RT V n p = ]RT [ = RT p ] [ = RT p [A] A = [A] k f RT p [B] B = [B] k r = r f r r = RT p k RT p k B r A f = constant k k RT p RT p r f A B = = p A B K constant p p = = = r f k k A(g) ֐ B(g) Equilibrium Constant and Reaction’s Quotient aA + bB + . ... ֐ cC + dD +. ...... Before the equilibrium is reached: ... ] [ ] [ ... ] [ ] [ b e a e d e c e c B A D C K = quotient reaction ... ] [ ] [ ... ] [ ] [ = = b a d c c B A D C Q Predicting the Direction of Reaction • For the general reaction • If Q c < K c , the reaction will shift right… toward products. • If Q c = K c , then the reaction is at equilibrium. dD cC bB aA + + • If Q c > K c , the reaction will shift left…toward reactants. b a d c c B A D C Q ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ =
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2 Writing Expression for the Equilibrium Constant - make sure the chemical equation is balanced - expression for K c (K p ) contains concentrations (partial pressures) of products in the numerator and the concentrations (partial pressures) of reactants in the denominator - concentrations (partial pressures) of each reactant and product have exponents equal to the stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced chemical equation - if a reactant or product is in the solid or liquid state, its concentration is assumed to be = 1 and this reactant or product does not appear in the expression for K c (K p ) -K c (K p ) is dimensionless (no units) Example Write the expression for equilibrium constant for the following reactions: CaCO 3 (s) ֐ CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) ֐ NH 4 OH(aq) 3ClO - (aq) ֐ 2Cl - (aq) + ClO 3 - (aq) Relationship Between K c(f) and K c(r) dD cC bB aA + + b e a e d e c e f c B A D C K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ) ( = bB aA dD cC + + d e c e b e a e r c D C B A K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ) ( = K c for the reaction multiplied by a factor “n” nb e na e nd e nc e c B A D C K ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ 2 = n b e a e d e c e B A D C
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chapter 15-6 slides per page - Topics The Concept of...

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