CH07,10.pt1 - Why study carbohydrates? Fuel source for most...

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1 Carbohydrates Chapter 7 Why study carbohydrates? Fuel source for most animals is carbohydrate (e.g. glucose) = highly reduced form of carbon. Carbohydrates (saccharides) have empirical formula (CH 2 O) n Monosaccharides = single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit (e.g. glucose) the trioses (simplest monosaccharides) aldose 7-1 ketose Stereoisomerism of monosaccharides 7-2 p. 237 D-aldoses D-ketoses p. 237 ketotetrose ketopentose ketohexose ketotriose
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2 D-aldoses epimers monosaccharides are optically active: dextrorotatory (+52.7 degrees) may exist in 2 different isomeric forms: α -D-glucose = +112.2° β -D-glucose = +18.7° +52.7° Mutarotation: ~ 1/3 α− and 2/3 β -D-glucose 7-6 intramolecular hemiacetal formation 7-5 7-6 Anomeric carbon anomers Reducing sugar 7-7 Haworth projections “Fischer Left it Up to Haworth”
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3 7-8 7-9 Derivatives of monosaccharides Disaccharides 7-11 O-glycosidic linkage 7-12 Lactose
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4 7-11 Lactose intolerance = lactase deficiency (maltase) Polysaccharides
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CH07,10.pt1 - Why study carbohydrates? Fuel source for most...

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