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ch06pt1 - Enzymes are highly specialized proteins with...

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1 Enzymes (Ch. 6) 1. Kinetics Enzymes are highly specialized proteins with several impt features: 1. Extraordinary catalytic power – typically accelerate reactions by factors of at least a million. e.g. hydration of CO 2 is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase: CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 Each enzyme molecule can hydrate 10 5 molecules CO 2 per sec. = 10 7 times faster than uncatalyzed. 2. High degree of specificity - can tell difference between L and D isomers 3. Catalyze reactions without formation of byproducts 4. Work under mild conditions of temp and pH - nonenzymatic hydrolysis of proteins typically requires 6 M HCl at 110 °C; Trypsin acts at neutral pH and 37 °C. Louis Pasteur (1850’s) Proposed fermentation of sugar into alcohol by yeasts catalyzed by "ferments". Later named enzymes ( in yeast ) - postulated that they were inseparable from structure of living yeast cells. 6-1 •Why so large compared to substrates? •How can aa, which can’t themselves accelerate rxns, produce such powerful catalytic activity when linked in specific sequences? •How is enzyme activity regulated? Catalysis = enhancing rate of specific chemical reaction that would otherwise occur very slowly Catalysts do not change equilibrium point,
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