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Trait, Evolutionary, Behavioral

Trait, Evolutionary, Behavioral - Trait Evolutionary...

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Trait, Evolutionary, & Behavioral Theories Lecture Outline prepared by Spencer A. McWilliams, Ph.D. for PSYC 334 Psychology of Personality California State University San Marcos
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Trait Perspective Describing people: basic units, using everyday language Construct: basic dimension of personality Individual differences, stable Measurement through tests, observation Refinement, factor analysis Number of Factors: 16, 5, 3: hierarchy
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Factor Analytic Trait Approach Describe personality: factors, questionnaires Description, not comprehensive Theory Factor Analysis: statistical procedure Based on correlation coefficients, matrix Describe smaller # of dimension (factors) Not magic: patterns of related observations
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Cattell’s 16 Factor Theory Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.” Traits: Units, specific predictive value Abstract concepts, not physical Determine behavior Personality ‘Test’: 16PF Questionnaire Taxonomy of individual differences
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Multivariate Approach to Complexity Personality: complex; Life: multivariate Surface Traits : observations that go together (i.e., + correlation) Source Traits : ‘robust’ clusters, repeated, must have one source of variance, ‘cause’ Second Order Factors : factor analysis of factors 5 global factors: extraversion, stability, receptivity, accommodating, self-control
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Adjustment, Trait Types Neurosis: controlling triumvirate related to impulse control & emotional adjustment Ego Strength, Superego Strength, Self- Sentiment Integration 3 Types: motives, temperament, ability Ability: Intelligence (Fluid: innate; Crystallized: education) Temperament: inherited, style & tempo Dynamic: Ergs, Metaergs (sentiments, attitudes)
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Predicting Behavior Specification Equation: combine traits in mathematical equation Combine with situations, ‘life space’ Idiographic: many measure on same person Syntality: group, cultural differences Constitutional vs. Environmental influence Heritabality: MAVA (Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis)
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Five Factor Theory Costa & McCrae: NEO-PI questionnaire Big Five: empirically supported mode Everyday language over time Major dimensions of personality Clear description, but not perfect prediction
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Big 5 Extraversion: sociable, talkative, not shy Agreeableness: friendly, compliant, avoids hostility, not suspicious Neuroticism: negative emotions, worry, lability, low ego strength Conscientiousness: dependable, orderly, self-disciplined, impulse control Openness: imaginative, original, artistic, liberal, broadminded
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The Five Factors Value in predicting other people’s behavior Dominance, cooperation, alliances, dependable, emotionality, useful in social life Same factors emerge in many studies Descriptive, not explanatory
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Evolution & Temperament Relating traits to evolution & neurobiology Evolutionary Psychology: Genetic variations enhancing reproduction more frequent over generations natural selection leads to genetically based characteristics effecting personality & social behavior Universal human ‘nature’, selection
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