Resp - BIO 212 Anatomy & Physiology II Unit 5:...

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Kaplan SP 2010 Unit 5: Respiratory System A. General Information 1. Anatomical Divisions a. Upper respiratory system (nose and pharynx) b. Lower respiratory system (larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs) c. three major regions 1. Nasopharyngeal: ciliated columnar epithelium with globlet cells. (vascular mucous epithelium made with columnar cells that have cilia. i. anterior nares to larynx ii. vascular mucous epithelium iii. ciliated columnar iv. goblet cells v. functions 1. filters particulates 2. relative humidity change – adjust humidity 3. changes/ adjust temperature 2. tracheobronchial: ciliated epithelium with globlet cells; bifurcation 23 generations. i. area between larynx and alveoli ii. trachea, bronchi, & bronchioles iii. ciliated epithelium iv. goblet cells & mucus secreting cells v. thin layer of mucus over surface of tubes 1. mucus terminates at film covering alveoli vi. functions 1. transport or conduct air from oral cavity to lungs & back 2. branching pattern of airway is important in deposition a. decreasing in diameter as they divide b. X sec area increases as bifurcations increase 3. Pulmonary: 100’s of alveoli, blood/ lymph vessels; supportive tissue, nerves i. primary location of gas exchange ii. 3-4 orders bronchioles iii. several orders alveolar ducts iv. several alveolar sacs v. hundreds of alveoli vi. vii. supportive tissue viii. nerves 2. Physiological Divisions a. Conducting Cavities and tubes outside and with in lungs 1
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Filter/ warm/ adjust humidity and transport. Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi b. Respiratory Tissues with in lungs Gas exchange Alveoli – main site of gas exchange (resp bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs) 3. Over 40 cell types in Respiratory System a. In general 1. 17 types of epithelium 2. 9 types of unspecified CT 3. 4. 2 distinct types of muscle cells 5. 7 cell types related to blood vessels 6. 5 types associated with pleural or neuronal tissue b. Those unique to the respiratory tract 1. ciliated bronchial epithelium 2. non-ciliated bronchial epithelium (Clara cells) 3. Type I (squamous alveolar) pneumocytes – gas exchange 4. Type II (great alveolar) pneumocytes – surfactant Surfactant – allows re-inflating. Decreased surface tension (cohesion/ adhesion of water) 5. alveolar macrophages (ø) c. In addition, 3 other cell types are of special interest & very susceptible to injury 1. endothelial cells* 2. interstitial cells* (fibrocytes, fibroblasts)--greatest % 3. Lining cells of trachea & bronchi*--smallest %. Most susceptible to injury. B. Nose 1. External portion resonance for sound.
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Resp - BIO 212 Anatomy & Physiology II Unit 5:...

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