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Literature Review - [Type text Li t Review and Methods...

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[Type text] Lit Review and Methods Loretta Andres Soc 300 March 24, 2010 Literature Review The definition and constraints of emotion has been argued by a variety of scientists, psychologists, and sociologist. Social scientists such as Darwin, Frued, Marx, Goffman, James, Asch, Mills, Gerth, Dewey, Blumer, Hochschild and many others have tried to understand emotions and the consequences of them. The Organismic Model. This model expresses emotion as a biological process. Freud illustrated that emotion is the result of libidinal discharge. Darwin believed that emotions came from instinct while James thought emotion was the product of the perception of the psychological process. The Organisimic Model is interested in how the emotion is “motored by instinct” and emotions are assumed to have a prior existence related to organic givens. Organisimic theorist also assumes that emotions are fixed. Darwin understood emotion through “emotional expressions” which are seen through visible gestures which are innate. Darwin also argues that through competition, men and animals strive for power. The result of competition and power comes from innate emotions. Freud’s ideas of emotion came from one feeling, anxiety. The buildup of libido indicated tension and anxiety. Anxiety was especially important to Freud because anxiety led to a array of ego defenses. The Interactional Model. Interactional theorists understand that more than biological factors effect emotions. These theorists support the idea that social factors during an experience also
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[Type text] Lit Review and Methods Loretta Andres Soc 300 March 24, 2010 contributes to the result of emotions. Sociologists such as Dewey, Gerth, Mills and Erving Goffman were Interactional theorists. Erving Goffman argues that each social situation contains a social reality in which people continuously recreated and sustained. Goffman understands feeling and emotion as a protection mechanism of the self and that is why he focuses on the emotions of shame and embarrassment.
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