[S.-Sumathi,-L.-Ashok-Kumar,-P.-Surekha-(auth.)]-S(z-lib.org).pdf - Green Energy and Technology S Sumathi L Ashok Kumar P Surekha Solar PV and Wind

[S.-Sumathi,-L.-Ashok-Kumar,-P.-Surekha-(auth.)]-S(z-lib.org).pdf

This preview shows page 1 out of 807 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 807 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Green Energy and Technology S. Sumathi L. Ashok Kumar P. Surekha Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems An Introduction to Theory, Modeling with MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the Role of Soft Computing Techniques Green Energy and Technology More information about this series at S. Sumathi • L. Ashok Kumar • P. Surekha Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems An Introduction to Theory, Modeling with MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the Role of Soft Computing Techniques S. Sumathi Electrical and Electronics Engineering PSG College of Technology Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India L. Ashok Kumar Electrical and Electronics Engineering PSG College of Technology Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India P. Surekha Electrical and Electronics Engineering PES University Bangalore, Karnataka, India ISSN 1865-3529 ISSN 1865-3537 (electronic) Green Energy and Technology ISBN 978-3-319-14940-0 ISBN 978-3-319-14941-7 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-14941-7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2015930263 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Printed on acid-free paper Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Preface Solar PV and wind energy is an integral part of different renewable energy resources, in general, and, in particular, it is the main and continuous input variable from the practically inexhaustible sun. Solar energy is expected to play a very significant role in the future especially in developing countries, but it also has potential in developed countries. Over the past few years, wind energy has shown the fastest rate of growth of any form of electricity generation with its development stimulated by concerns of national policy makers over climate change, energy diversity and security of supply. The material presented in this book has been chosen to provide a comprehensive account of solar energy modeling methods based on MATLAB/SIMULINK. The book is intended for later year undergraduate, post-graduate and research students interested in understanding the modeling and control of large wind turbine generators based on MATLAB/SIMULINK. It starts with a review of the principles of operation, modeling and control of the common solar energy and wind generation systems and then moves on to discuss grid compatibility, power quality issues and hybrid models of solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems. MATLAB/SIMULINK models of fuel cell technology and their converters are discussed in detail. The impact of soft computing techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms in the area of solar and wind energy is explained with practical implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK models. Coimbatore, India S. Sumathi v Acknowledgement The authors are always thankful to the Almighty for perseverance and achievements. The authors owe their gratitude to Mr. L. Gopalakrishnan, Managing Trustee, PSG Institutions, and Dr. R. Rudramoorthy, Principal, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, for their whole-hearted cooperation and great encouragement given in this successful endeavour. Dr. Sumathi owes much to her daughter, S. Priyanka, who has helped a lot in monopolizing her time on book work and substantially realized the responsibility. She feels happy and proud for the steel frame support rendered by her husband, Mr. Sai Vadivel. Dr. Sumathi would like to extend whole-hearted thanks to her parents who have reduced the family commitments and for their constant support. She is greatly thankful to her brother Mr. M. S. Karthikeyan who has always been a “Stimulator” for her progress. She is pertinent in thanking her parents-in-laws for their great moral support. Dr. L. Ashok Kumar would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge those people who helped me in completing this book. This book would not have come to its completion without the help of my students, my department staff and my institute. My sincere gratitude and thanks are due to our Management and to our Principal Dr. R. Rudramoorthy for providing me such a wonderful platform to perform. I am thankful to all my students who are doing their project and research work with me. But the writing of this book is greatly possible mainly because of the support of my family members, parents and sisters. Most importantly, I am very grateful to my wife, Y. Uma Maheswari, for her constant support during writing, and without her all these things would not be possible. I would like to express my special gratitude to my daughter, A. K. Sangamithra, for her smiling face and support, this helped a lot in completing this book work even there is any backlog and the writing of this book has taken a significant amount of my play time with her. vii viii Acknowledgement Dr. P. Surekha would like to thank her parents, husband, Mr. A. Srinivasan, and daughter, Baby. S. Saisusritha, who shouldered a lot of extra responsibilities during the months this was being written. They did this with the long-term vision, depth of character, and positive outlook that are truly befitting of their name. The authors wish to thank all their friends and colleagues who have been with them in all their endeavours with their excellent, unforgettable help and assistance in the successful execution of the work. About This Book Solar and wind energy are expected to play a very significant role in the future especially in developing countries, but it also has potential in developed countries. The material presented in this book has been chosen to provide a comprehensive account of solar and wind energy modeling methods. For this purpose, explanatory background material has been introduced with MATLAB based simulation models with the intention that engineers and scientists can benefit on the subject both from application and research points of view. In practical implementation, the efficiency of solar PV and wind energy conversion systems is less, hence converters are used to improve the efficiency. Converters are designed using MATLAB/SIMULINK models thus increasing the efficiency and providing several applications in the research perspective. Recent trends in solar and wind energy based on soft computing techniques are also provided with practical examples and Simulink models. Salient Features The salient features of this book include: • Detailed description of solar PV and their components. • Theory and practical applications of wind energy conversion systems. • MATLAB/SIMULINK based models of solar and wind energy conversion systems. • Hybrid energy systems, power quality issues and grid integration techniques. • Applications of solar and wind energy conversion systems based on soft computing. • Implementation of soft computing based solar PV and wind energy conversion systems using MATLAB/SIMULINK. • Principle of fuel cell, converters used in fuel cell and architecture models for high power and high voltage applications. ix x About This Book Organization of the book Chapter 1 describes the basic concepts of renewable energy systems, i-implications of renewable energy and their availability in India and the World, basic terminologies used in the renewable energy systems, grid integration issues while integrating renewable energy systems, schemes, policies and funds available for renewable energy systems, and the role of MATLAB/SIMULINK and soft computing techniques in renewable energy systems. Chapter 2 provides an understanding of basic components of solar PV system and its merits and demerits, involvement of power electronic devices in solar PV components, MATLAB/SIMULINK model of different control strategies of power conditioning unit, importance of MATLAB/SIMULINK model in improving the efficiency of the overall solar PV system, characteristics of solar PV panel and its MATLAB/SIMULINK model, and characteristics and MATLAB/SIMULINK model of solar PV power conditioning unit. Chapter 3 discusses the importance of soft computing techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms in solar PV system. Soft computing techniques used in MPPT of solar PV system and its MATLAB/SIMULINK model, prediction of solar irradiance using soft computing techniques and parameter estimation of solar PV module using genetic algorithms are delineated in this chapter. Chapter 4 focuses on the characteristics of wind energy and components of wind energy conversion systems. The types of wind turbine generators based on their electrical configuration are described. The power converter topologies used for wind turbine generators are elaborated in detail. The MATLAB/SIMULINK models for wind turbine and types of wind turbine generators are developed and the simulation results are analyzed. The concept of grid connection with SIMULINK model is presented in this chapter. In Chap. 5, importance of soft computing techniques in WECS, prediction of power factor using soft computing techniques, fuzzy based pitch angle control, soft computing based MPPT in WECS, and economic dispatch of WECS using soft computing algorithms are discussed. In Chap. 6, a detailed description of hybridizing solar PV module with wind energy system and diesel system is provided. Further, the MATLAB/SIMULINK model of hybrid solar PV and wind energy conversion system, converters used for hybrid solar PV and wind energy conversion system, and fuzzy logic controller for hybrid power systems are also elaborated. Chapter 7 explains the grid issues in integrating renewable energy systems, converters used for grid integration techniques and their control strategy. MATLAB/SIMULINK models of Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (dq PLL), Stationary Reference Frame PLL (αβ PLL), Decoupled Synchronous Reference Frame PLL (DSRF PLL), Decoupled Stationary Reference Frame PLL (Dαβ PLL) and Hybrid Dαβ PLL, and Filters used for grid integration techniques and its control strategy are provided. About This Book xi Chapter 8 gives the basic concepts of harmonics and power quality issues, reactive power compensation using custom power devices such as DSTATCOM, DVR and UPQC, power quality problems and standards associated with power quality issues. The procedure for measurement of power quality in PV system and harmonic reduction in wind energy conversion systems with power quality issues are explained in detail. Chapter 9 enlightens the need for fuel cells and types of fuel cells, comparative analysis and characteristic behavior of fuel cells, MATLAB/SIMULINK implementation of fuel cell model, types of converters and their implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK, series architecture, DC bus distribution architecture, high frequency AC (HFAC) distribution architecture, multilevel architecture models for high power and high voltage applications. Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 What Is Energy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 The Energy Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Energy Crisis: Global and Indian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Energy Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Efficient Energy Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Classification of Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Solar Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 Solar Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2 Measurement of Solar Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Wind Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 Renewable Energy in the 12th Five-Year Plan (2012–2017) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Barriers to Achieving Higher Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Benefits of Renewable Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Trends in Energy Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Annual Energy Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.2 RES in INDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.3 National Policy Measures Supporting Renewables . . . . 1.7.4 Renewable Energy Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.5 Generation Based Incentive (2009–2012) . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.6 Renewable Energy Certificate Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.7 National Clean Energy Fund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.8 Other Initiatives: Renewable Regulatory Fund Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.9 Land Allocation Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.10 Grid Integration Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.11 Grid Transmission Planning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.12 Interconnection Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 4 6 7 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 xiii xiv Contents 1.7.13 Green Energy Corridor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.14 India Smart Grid Task Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Worldwide Potentials of Renewable Energy Sources . . . . . . . . 1.9 Need for New Energy Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.10 Introduction to Matlab and Simulink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11 Introduction to Soft Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11.1 Soft Computing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11.2 Applications of Soft Computing Techniques in Solar Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.11.3 Applications of Soft Computing (AI) Techniques in Wind Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 33 33 34 41 44 44 45 . 52 . . . 54 55 55 Application of MATLAB/SIMULINK in Solar PV Systems . . . . . . . 2.1 Basics of Solar PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 PV Module Performance Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Balance of System and Applicable Standards . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Photovoltaic Systems Total Costs Overview . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Types of PV Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Grid-Connected Solar PV System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Stand-Alone Solar PV System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 PV-Hybrid Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Stand-Alone Hybrid AC Solar Power System with Generator and Battery Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 MATLAB Model of Solar PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 SIMULINK Model of PV Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 SIMULINK Model for PV Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 SIMULINK Model to Find Shading Effect . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Charge Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Batteries in PV Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Battery Types and Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 Battery Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.4 Battery Discharging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5 Battery Gassing and Overcharge Reaction . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.6 Charge Controller Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.7 Charge Controller Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.8 Operating Without a Charge Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.9 Using Low-Voltage “Self-Regulating” Modules . . . . . . 2.5.10 Using a Large Battery or Small Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 MATLAB Model of SOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 SIMULINK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 MATLAB Model of Charge Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.1 Centralized Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.2 String Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 60 61 62 65 66 66 67 69 69 71 79 81 82 83 84 85 85 86 88 88 94 95 95 96 96 98 100 103 104 106 Contents 2.8.3 Multi-string Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.4 Module Integrated Inverter/Micro-inverters . . . . . . . . 2.8.5 Inverter Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of Inverter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9.1 SIMULINK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 Maximum Power Point Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.1 MPPT Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.2 MATLAB/SIMULINK Implementation of Perturb and Observe Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.3 MATLAB/SIMULINK Model of the Incremental Conductance Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.4 PV Module with MPPT Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 xv . . . . . . . 107 107 108 108 109 110 115 . 130 . . . . 130 130 140 140 Soft Computing Techniques in Solar PV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 MPPT Using Fuzzy Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Description and Design of FLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Simulation and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Neural Networks for MPP Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Background of Neural Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Algorithm for ANN Based MPPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Neuro-Fuzzy Based MPPT Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Fuzzy Neural Network Hybrids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Theoretical Background of ANFIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3 Architecture of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.4 Hybrid Learning Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.5 Neuro-Fuz...
View Full Document

  • Winter '16
  • B.Mazhari
  • Photovoltaics

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture