ImpuritiesConcepts_Fa09 - CEE 320 Environmental Engineering...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CEE 320 Impurities in water and air Environmental Engineering Fall 2009 1 Impurities in water and air – a study guide to supplement your textbook – (see also Learning Objectives presented in lecture) Concepts in Chapter 2 that you must master (and be able to solve problems related to) Concepts you do NOT have to master (but that you should be aware of) The mole and molar units (p. 36) Chemical reactions and stoichiometry (p. 37) Activity (p. 37) Balancing chemical reactions (p. 38) Types of chemical reactions (p. 39-44) Chemical equilibrium (p. 44 – 56) Solubility (p. 45 only, but including Example 2-6) Common ion effect (p. 49-51, including examples) Acid-base equilibria (p. 51-54) Equilibrium among gases and liquids (p. 54-56) Thermodynamic derivation of solubility products (p. 45-47) Organic chemistry (p. 61-64) Reaction kinetics (p. 56-59) Gas transfer across air-water interfaces (p. 59-61) – we will cover this later Solution states of impurities (p. 65-66) Physical properties of water (p. 64-65) Concentration units (p. 66-69) Buffers (p. 69-75) Soil chemistry (p. 75-76) Atmospheric chemistry (p.76-80) Acids, bases and the hydrogen ion (H + ) Water dissociates in aqueous solution to form H + and OH - H s O H + + OH - The concentration of H + in water is such an important parameter (sometimes called the “master variable” ) that we have a special way of expressing it, called pH. pH ≡ − log[H + ] Dissociation constant for water (K w ): K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 10 14 M 2 We will learn more about dissociation constants when we cover acid-base chemistry next week.
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CEE 320 Impurities in water and air Environmental Engineering Fall 2009 2 The pH of some environmentally relevant solutions Concentrations of Hydrogen ions (H + ) compared to distilled water pH Solutions that typically have this pH H + OH - 10,000,000 0 battery acid 1 x 10 0 1 x 10 -14 1,000,000 1 stomach acid 1 x 10 -1 1 x 10 -13 100,000 2 lemon juice, vinegar 1 x 10 -2 1 x 10 -12 10,000 3 orange juice, soda 1 x 10 -3 1 x 10 -11 1,000 4 tomato juice, acid rain 1 x 10 -4 1 x 10 -10 100 5 black coffee, rain water 1 x 10 -5 1 x 10 -9 10 6 urine, saliva 1 x 10 -6 1 x 10 -8 1 7 "pure" water 1 x 10 -7 1 x 10 -7 1/10 8 sea water 1 x 10 -8 1 x 10 -6 1/100 9 baking soda slurry 1 x 10 -9 1 x 10 -5 1/1,000 10 Great Salt Lake 1 x 10 -10 1 x 10 -4 1/10,000 11 Ammonia in solution 1 x 10 -11 1 x 10 -3 1/100,000 12 soapy water 1 x 10 -12 1 x 10 -2 1/1,000,000 13 bleach 1 x 10 -13 1 x 10 -1 1/10,000,000 14 liquid drain cleaner 1 x 10 -14 1 x 10 0 Questions to think about: What is the pH of pure water open to the atmosphere? Does the pH of pure water go up or down when we inject it into a limestone aquifer? Ions in water Electroneutrality principle (not in your text!) Useful for solving precipitation-dissolution problems and acid-base problems.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern