ImpuritiesConcepts_Fa09

ImpuritiesConcepts_Fa09 - CEE 320 Environmental Engineering...

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CEE 320 Impurities in water and air Environmental Engineering Fall 2009 1 Impurities in water and air – a study guide to supplement your textbook – (see also Learning Objectives presented in lecture) Concepts in Chapter 2 that you must master (and be able to solve problems related to) Concepts you do NOT have to master (but that you should be aware of) The mole and molar units (p. 36) Chemical reactions and stoichiometry (p. 37) Activity (p. 37) Balancing chemical reactions (p. 38) Types of chemical reactions (p. 39-44) Chemical equilibrium (p. 44 – 56) Solubility (p. 45 only, but including Example 2-6) Common ion effect (p. 49-51, including examples) Acid-base equilibria (p. 51-54) Equilibrium among gases and liquids (p. 54-56) Thermodynamic derivation of solubility products (p. 45-47) Organic chemistry (p. 61-64) Reaction kinetics (p. 56-59) Gas transfer across air-water interfaces (p. 59-61) – we will cover this later Solution states of impurities (p. 65-66) Physical properties of water (p. 64-65) Concentration units (p. 66-69) Buffers (p. 69-75) Soil chemistry (p. 75-76) Atmospheric chemistry (p.76-80) Acids, bases and the hydrogen ion (H + ) Water dissociates in aqueous solution to form H + and OH - H s O H + + OH - The concentration of H + in water is such an important parameter (sometimes called the “master variable” ) that we have a special way of expressing it, called pH. pH ≡− log[H + ] Dissociation constant for water (K w ): K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 10 14 M 2 We will learn more about dissociation constants when we cover acid-base chemistry next week.
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CEE 320 Impurities in water and air Environmental Engineering Fall 2009 2 The pH of some environmentally relevant solutions Concentrations of Hydrogen ions (H + ) compared to distilled water pH Solutions that typically have this pH H + OH - 10,000,000 0 battery acid 1 x 10 0 1 x 10 -14 1,000,000 1 stomach acid 1 x 10 -1 1 x 10 -13 100,000 2 lemon juice, vinegar 1 x 10 -2 1 x 10 -12 10,000 3 orange juice, soda 1 x 10 -3 1 x 10 -11 1,000 4 tomato juice, acid rain 1 x 10 -4 1 x 10 -10 100 5 black coffee, rain water 1 x 10 -5 1 x 10 -9 10 6 urine, saliva 1 x 10 -6 1 x 10 -8 1 7 "pure" water 1 x 10 -7 1 x 10 -7 1/10 8 sea water 1 x 10 -8 1 x 10 -6 1/100 9 baking soda slurry 1 x 10 -9 1 x 10 -5 1/1,000 10 Great Salt Lake 1 x 10 -10 1 x 10 -4 1/10,000 11 Ammonia in solution 1 x 10 -11 1 x 10 -3 1/100,000 12 soapy water 1 x 10 -12 1 x 10 -2 1/1,000,000 13 bleach 1 x 10 -13 1 x 10 -1 1/10,000,000 14 liquid drain cleaner 1 x 10 -14 1 x 10 0 Questions to think about: What is the pH of pure water open to the atmosphere? Does the pH of pure water go up or down when we inject it into a limestone aquifer? Ions in water
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2010 for the course CEE 320 taught by Professor Mcmahon during the Spring '10 term at University of Wisconsin.

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ImpuritiesConcepts_Fa09 - CEE 320 Environmental Engineering...

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