Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema.pdf - Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia ASHISH RAJ A D H YAKS H A P AU L WILLE ME N BFI

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Unformatted text preview: Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema Encyclopaedia ASHISH RAJ A D H YAKS H A / P AU L WILLE ME N BFI PUBLISHING OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS New Delhi 1998 Produced in association with the National Film Achive of India of First published in 1994 by the British Film Institute 21 Stephen Street, London W1P 1PL and Oxford University Press YMCA Library Building, Jai Singh Road Post Box 43, New Delhi 110001 The British Film Institute exists to encourage the development of film, television and video in the United Kingdom, and to promote knowledge, understanding and enjoyment of the culture of the moving image. Its activities include the National Film and Television Archive; the National Film Theatre; the Museum of the Moving Image; the London Film Festival; the production and distribution of film and video; funding and support for regional activities; Library and Information Services; Stills, Posters and Design; Research, Publishing and Education; and the monthly Sight and Sound magazine. Copyright © Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen 1994 All rights reserved Cover: From the exhibition Culture of the Streets (1981) by M. F. Husain. Reproduced, with grateful thanks, courtesy of M. F. Husain. The authors respectfully dedicate this book to the memory of D. D. Kosambi. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 0-85170-455-7 (UK) 019-563579-5 (India) US Cataloguing data available from the Library of Congress. R Designed and Processed at CONTENTS Acknowledgments .................................................................................. 7 Preface to Second Edition ...................................................................... 8 Preface .................................................................................................... 9 Introduction .......................................................................................... 10 Explanatory Notes ................................................................................ 12 Abbreviations ....................................................................................... 15 Chronicle .............................................................................................. 17 National Production Figures ................................................................ 30 Dictionary ............................................................................................. 33 Films ................................................................................................... 243 Bibliography ....................................................................................... 533 Name Index ........................................................................................ 547 Film Index........................................................................................... 572 Blank Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge the financial and institutional assistance of the UNESCO Participation Programme (1989); the Indian Council for Social Science Research, New Delhi; the Charles Wallace (India) Trust; Tata Institute of Social Sciences (Bombay), and Centre for the Study of Culture & Society, Bangalore. A special thank you, at the end of a long journey, to all the contributors of this book. Most of them worked on it in their spare time, while holding down full-time jobs as bureaucrats, teachers, journalists or researchers in areas other than the cinema, which makes their involvement, their labour and their patience all the more valuable. A number of people have graciously and generously taken the time to give us advice and to comment on parts of the manuscript. Special thanks go to Nasreen Munni Kabir, M. S. S. Pandian, V. A. K. Ranga Rao, Geeta Kapur, Harish Raghuvanshi, P. K. Nair, Sibaji Bandyopadhyay, Anustup Basu, Shivarama Padikkal, ‘Filmnews’ Anandan, Venkatesh Chakravarthy, V. Chandran, Roma Gibson, B. N. Subramanya and P. G. Srinivasa Murthy. The already complicated problems of gathering information across the expanse of India, the absence of established networks and the, at times, bewildering logistics of simple communication systems, always and in every instance means that in India, people depend on other people, friends and colleagues, families, associates, relatives, acquaintances, to manage - even to set up - functioning systems in lieu of those that do not work. I could not even begin to list the many friends who extended their hospitality to me, those who sent me books and references or put me in touch with others who could help. A special thank you to colleagues at the Centre for the Study of Culture and Society, Bangalore, in particular to Tejaswini Niranjana for her support and encouragement, Geeta Kapur, Vivan Sundaram, Nasreen Munni Kabir, Prof. Mihir Bhattacharya and the Department of Film Studies Jadavpur University, Nandinee Bandyopadhyay, Jhuma Basak; P. Govinda Pillai, Prof. Hiren Gohain, Dhiru Bhuyan, Pabitra Kumar Deka, Prafulla Dutta, Bobbeeta Sarma; Ashok Dhareshwar, David Windsor; Anjali Monteiro at the TISS, Sudhir Nandgaonkar and the Prabhat Chitra Mandal, S. V. Rajendra Singh, Girish Kasaravalli, Satyamurthy Anandur, Sushant Mishra, T.V. Chandran, K.P. Kumaran. Subbalakshmi Iyer allowed us the use of her bibliography of Indian cinema. A special thanks to Gudipoodi Srihari for his help in Telugu film, ‘Filmnews’ Anandan for the Tamil and Dilip Das for helping us overcome difficulties in researching recent Oriya film. Gerhard Koch kindly advised us on the entry for Franz Osten. M. S. S. Pandian provided a new bibliography of Tamil film for the second edition. Randor Guy graciously reassured us about the accuracy of some of our information on Tamil cinema. Jyoti Bhatt gave us his kind permission to use and also provided the print for the picture illustrating the DMK Film entry. Virchand Dharamsey made available his encyclopaedic memory not only in his area of specialisation, but also to identify hundreds of film stills. Harish Raghuvanshi is largely responsible for whatever degree of accuracy we have achieved in our Hindi filmographies. K. P. R. Nair shot and S. B. Kanhere developed the prints in the NFAI collection for this book. Riyad Vinci Wadia provided new information, including prints of otherwise unavailable Wadia productions to help us correct and update credits, synopses, filmographies and other information on that studio and its personnel. The Films Division Commentary staff gave me access to every Indian language, a unique instance of the unique nature of many of our national institutions. Alaknanda Samarth’s support at all times, and especially in that rainy February of 1992 in London at a particularly critical time for this project, as well as Mrs Ranu Biswas’ hospitality in Calcutta and R. S. Amladi’s for long stretches in Pune, are the kinds of support that, over time, became integral to the logistics of this programme. Stills: Courtesy National Film Archive of India; BFI Stills, Posters and Designs; Kamat Foto Flash, Syndications Today. We thank the following contributors and consultants: Assamese: Pradip Acharya (Guwahati) Bengali: Moinak Biswas (Calcutta) Bhojpuri and Rajasthani: Murlidhar Soni (Jaipur) Gujarati: Amrit Gangar (Mumbai) Gujarati and Hindi: Harish Raghuvanshi (Surat) Hindi: Nasreen Munni Kabir (London) Kannada: Dr Vijaya (Bangalore), Madhava Prasad (Bangalore) Malayalam: P. K. Nair (Pune), R. Nandakumar (Trivandrum), Neelan (Trichur), Satheesh Poduval (Hyderabad) Oriya: Chandidas Mishra (Mumbai/Bhubhaneshwar), Samarendra Das (Phulbani) Punjabi: B. R. Garg (New Delhi), Anup Singh (London) Silent Film: Virchand Dharamsey (Mumbai) Tamil: S. Theodore Baskaran (Chennai), Preetham Chakravarthy (Chennai) Telugu: K. N. T. Sastry (Hyderabad), I. S. A. Mohana Krishna (Hyderabad), S. V. Srinivas (Hyderabad/Bangalore) Research and editorial assistance were generously contributed by Subhash Chheda, Amrit Gangar and their team at DadaKino, Mumbai, as well as by: Bengali: Amitava Sen (Calcutta), Sanjit Choudhury (Calcutta) Documentary Film: Subhash Chheda, Amrit Gangar (Mumbai) Hindi: Kavita Anand (Mumbai), Ganga Mukhi (Mumbai) Kannada: Pushpamala N. (Mysore/Mumbai), Sandhya Rao (Bangalore), Raghunandan (Mysore) Malayalam: M. G. Radhakrishnan (Trivandrum), Koshy A.V. (Trivandrum), Sreekumar K. (Trivandrum) and Manambur Suresh (London) Marathi: Vasudha Ambiye (Mumbai) Silent Film: Partho Datta (New Delhi) Tamil: M. Ravi Kumar (Mumbai) This book, quite simply, would never have been realised without the assistance of a number of people within the British Film Institute (Richard Paterson, Bridget Kinally and Imdad Hussain), London, and the National Film Archive of India, Pune. In addition, we should like to thank the Nehru Centre in London, the London International Film Festival, Mr R. Advani and Ms Anita Roy of the Oxford University Press, Delhi, for their enthusiasm and support. For support in editing, designing and printing the second edition, we are especially grateful to the Repro-India team, and in particular to Rakesh Pherwani’s assistance in solving often complex problems of computer software. We are particularly grateful to Mr P. K. Nair who, in his former capacity as director of the NFAI, was a major supporter of the project and who later became one of its key contributors and authorities. His successor, Suresh Chabria, extended all the facilities of the NFAI for research and remained a source of encouragement and support. On several occasions the staff, especially the film and library staff, went beyond their official function to extend their belief in, and commitment to, this endeavour. Needless to say, none of this book’s no doubt numerous shortcomings can be blamed on any of the contributors and advisers who have so generously and unselfishly given their time and expertise to this project. Thanks also to the library staffs, too numerous to name, of the National Centre for Performing Arts, Mumbai Marathi Granthasangrahalaya, the Centre for Education and Documentation (Mumbai); the Kerala Studies section of the Trivandrum University Library; the National Library, Gautam Chattopadhyay at Nandan, the libraries of Chitrabani, Cine Central and Cine Society (Calcutta); the Film and Television Institute of India (Pune); the Suchitra Film Society (Bangalore); the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library (New Delhi); the BFI’s library and the India Office Library (London). Information about the careers of Indian directors in Malaysia was kindly supplied by Mr Dato’ Haji Mohd Zain Haji Hamzah and Ms Shara Abdul Samad of the National Film Development Corporation, Malaysia. And, finally, Pushpamala, who shared with me every moment of the pain and the pleasure, the discoveries and the journeys of realisation we made together these last five years. The complexity these days of values like ‘home’ and ‘belonging’ and ‘memory’, the interrogation and enablement that is the very stuff of her work, makes her place in the world in which this book has been written perhaps the most special of all. Ashish Rajadhyaksha 7 Preface to Second Edition I t is with pleasure that we present before you a revised and updated did not feature in the book. It must be remembered in this context that second edition of the Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema. The book’s some 23 million Indians go to the movies every day, that a goodly indices, filmographies and film entries have now been brought up percentage of these would consider themselves, validly, authorities on to 1995. We present new entries on stars, directors and composers who the subject of this book, and further, that certain kinds of actors often have made their mark in the 1990s, and a vastly expanded section of film represent an essential constituency, and are crucially implicated in the entries where we have especially covered mainstream productions from assertion of their fans’ identities. the 1970s-90s. These are films that are most likely to be in current circulation, on video, television or in your neighbourhood theatre. We have carried out many thousands of corrections on the first edition, some major, others mostly to do with spellings, dates - many film titles have now been re-dated in terms of their actual completion (rather than their dates of release) - and the identification of dubbed films and multilingual productions. We also include a new feature: an exhaustive index of names other than the ones featuring as independent entries. Although Many readers responded to our call for this project to become something of a collaborative venture, helped with their knowledge on certain areas, with comments on certain perhaps unduly critical turns of phrase, with otherwise scarce information enabling us to update this project as a whole. To these readers, and to the dozens of reviewers of the first edition in India, Pakistan, Britain, Australia and the USA who also came up with often useful responses, our sincere gratitude. nowhere near the end, we believe in all this that we have taken a major Our gratitude especially extends to the team that assembled the first step towards that elusive category ‘definitive’. edition, and went to work on the second. We also welcome to the team When we handed over the first edition to the publishers in mid-1994, all those who had worked on the book were aware of the priorities of its time. Our focus was then on the history of Indian cinema, especially on its relatively less chronicled periods: the silent era, the early years of sound, the major directors, stars, writers and composers who were noted figures in their times but often forgotten by subsequent generations. several new, younger, contributors and consultants who joined us, notably in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Oriya cinemas. Their names feature in our updated acknowledgements list. Many of our senior authorities went through the book in the greatest possible detail, and we must especially reiterate our gratitude to Virchand Dharamsey, Harish Raghuvanshi and V.A.K. Ranga Rao in this regard. Furthermore, we tried to present as far as possible within the pages of a Most gratifying perhaps, at least partly as a result of the work that went single book the vast panorama of the six major language industries and into this book along with the debates its publication has sparked, other the nine other languages in which films are commonly made, covering initiatives appear to have received a new burst of energy. In terms of not only the well known titles but also the key film-making personnel of research, DataKino’s computerised data bank housed at the National these regions. This often called for some kind of loose system of Film Development Corporation is set up on a clearly more allocating space to all ‘language’ cinemas proportionate to their comprehensive scale than could have been achieved in one book. production scale. Finally, we addressed the major problems presented by Further, the success of the first edition contributed to providing a new the archives: how to use current concerns of theory to ‘read into’ space for writing on the cinema, and to allied events such as conferences surviving material in situations where the films themselves haven’t and workshops in the relatively recent discipline of film studies. It is this always survived and information is scanty, scattered and often development, and the nature of demands that theorists and researchers contradictory. of the future and arising from the new disciplines that are currently in the Having put this together, the next stage was to put this material into the public arena, and generate some kind of dialogue with interested readers and authorities. We always expected a controversial response, but never one as process of formation and stabilisation, that will no doubt determine the future directions this Encyclopaedia project will take. Perhaps future, computerised, and eventually on-line publication will allow both an expansion of the space at our disposal and permit newer search modes suitable both to researchers and cinephiles alike. overwhelming as we got, especially in India, but also in many other parts of the world where the book is being used by teachers and researchers of Indian film. In India, the commonest response featured extensive, often heated, discussions around why certain names - usually of stars - 8 Ashish Rajadhyaksha/Paul Willemen August 1998 P roducing a reference work about a national cinema is an uncomfortable project. Both Seamus Deane, an Irish intellectual, and Aijaz Ahmad, a subcontinental intellectual, have produced powerful critiques of the very attempts to provide a history of any particular art-form presented in terms of a nation-state’s achievements. Deane’s ‘Critical Reflections’ in Artforum of December 1993 argue the case in relation to the construction of national art histories. Ahmad’s ‘Indian Literature: Notes Towards the Definition of a Category’, reprinted in his book In Theory (1992, pp. 243-85), examines the (im)possibility of there being a national Indian literary history. Ahmad points out that, even should the legitimacy of a category such as Indian literature be granted, it would have to encompass such diverse histories in so many languages tied to geographical terrains with constantly shifting boundaries that no single scholar can ever claim to practise the discipline of Indian literature. Furthermore, the territorial unity that can readily, though abusively, be imagined for German, French, US or Japanese cinemas and literatures, cannot be fantasised for India without restricting the terrain and the period to an absurdly small fragment of what should be addressed if we are to make any kind of sense of the cultural productions at issue. To restrict an account of Indian cinema to the geotemporal frame constituted by the Indian nation-state since Independence or, more accurately, since Partition, would require us to ignore some of the most admirable cinematic achievements realised in Colonial India. More damagingly, it would also rule out any engagement with the longer-term dynamics which have shaped post-Partition Indian cinema. Even if it were thought to be desirable, a rigorously ‘nation-state’ approach to Indian cinema, or to any other art-form, cannot be sustained. If we put the emphasis on ‘nation’ rather than on ‘state’, the problems only multiply. In other words, there is no sense of Indianness, nor of any other so-called national identity, that precedes the forms of historical and personal experience or expression given shape by particular, geographically and historically bounded institutions of government, by particular state forms providing and enforcing, and always necessarily falling short of doing so homogeneously, both geographical limits and social stratifications. Nations are retroactive, not retrospective constructions to which we are invited, often not very subtly, to adhere. Seamus Deane notes that ‘the most essentialist figurings of history ... depend upon making an intersection between time and space, between chronology and territory. This is a feature of all writings that aim to provide a history of an art-form, of a literature, of a nation-state’s achievement in the arts.’ He goes on to ask: Is it possible to write a history of any form of ‘Art’, is it possible to locate it territorially, and at the same time to be free of any conception of art that is not at least implicitly essentialist and therefore subversive of the very idea and form of history - that is not in some sense either reactionary or ancestral in its longings, and, ultimately, impassive toward all forms of exposition or explanation? In this respect, a reference work is no different from a historical account: both construct what they purport to address. Deane’s questions go to the heart of the matter. It may not be an accident that an Irish intellectual talking about ‘Iris...
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