Chapter 3 Biological Molecules

Chapter 3 Biological Molecules - Chapter 3 Biological...

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Chapter 3 Biological Molecules I. Biological Molecules a. Aside from water, most biologically related molecules contain carbon. i. Organic molecules are molecules containing carbon. b. Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules i. Carbon has a valence of 4 ii. Can bind to 2,3, or 4 other atoms II. Functional Groups a. Another factor which leads to the versatility of organic molecules is the attachment of functional groups (see table 3-1) b. Functional groups are small characteristic groups of atoms which are frequently bonded to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules c. Functional groups: i. Have specific chemical and physical properties ii. Are regions of organic molecules which are frequently chemically reactive iii. Behave consistently from one organic molecule to another iv. Can determine the chemical properties of the organic molecule in which they are located III. Hydrogen a. Hydrogen group is a functional group of a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton) b. Is either a polar group or a non-polar group depending on the atom to which the hydrogen is attached c. Involved in condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis IV. Hydroxyl a. Hydroxyl group is a functional group of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom b. Is a polar group c. Involved in condensation and hydrolysis reactions V. Carboxyl a. Carboxyl group is a functional group in which a carbon atom is double bonded to an oxygen atom and is also single bonded to the oxygen atom of a hydroxyl group b. Since this group can donate a proton, it is an acid c. Involved in peptide bonds VI. Amino a. Amino groups are functional groups in which two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a nitrogen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom b. Acts as a weak base c. Involved in peptide bonds VII. Phosphate a. Phosphate group is a functional group which is the dissociated form of phosphoric acid b. Acts as an acid because of the ability to donate protons c. Links nucleotides d. Important in cellular energy storage and energy transfer i. Ex. ATP VIII. Methyl a. Methyl group is a functional group which consists of 3 hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom
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b. Is a non-polar group c. Makes the molecule more hydrophobic IX. Synthesizing Organic Molecules: A Modular Approach a. Biological molecules are often put together in subunits, or modules, called monomers. b. The simple molecules condensed into more complex ones c. Monomers into polymers i. Polymer are chains of similar building blocks or monomers ii. Monomer is a subunit of a polymer iii. Polymerization—the bonding of many small subunits (monomers) to form long molecules (polymers) X. Dehydration Synthesis a. PAGE 39 b. The reaction that forms a polymer from monomers c. A reaction in which the covalent linkage of the monomers in accompanied by the “removal” of a water molecule XI. Hydrolysis a. The breaking of the covalent bond between two monomers by the addition of water
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Chapter 3 Biological Molecules - Chapter 3 Biological...

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