Chapter 5 Cell Structure and Function

Chapter 5 Cell Structure and Function - Chapter 5 Cell...

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Chapter 5 Cell Structure and Function I. Basics a. The cell is the smallest living unit. b. Genetic material in cells is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) II. Where is the DNA stored? Prokaryotes Eukaryotes No nucleus or nuclear envelope Nucleus with a nuclear envelope Genetic material in a “nucleoid region” Genetic material within the nucleus No organelles or internal membranes Contains cytosol with membrane-bound organelles a. Nucleoid is a dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell. b. Cytoplasm is the entire region inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus in cells that have a nucleus (i.e., most eukaryotic cells) III. Eukaryotes are much more complex. a. The inside of the eukaryotic cell is compartmentalized into organelles. b. Organelles are one of several compartments suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. c. Some of the cellular organelles: i. Nucleus ii. Endoplasmic reticulum iii. Golgi complex iv. Vesicles v. Mitochondrion vi. Chloroplasts (in plants) d. The nucleus is the compartment that contains the cell’s genetic library. i. Nucleus is a (usually) membrane bound cellular organelle in eukaryotic cells. ii. The nucleus contains most of the genes that control the cell. iii. Nuclear envelope is a double membrane which encloses the nucleus of a
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Chapter 5 Cell Structure and Function - Chapter 5 Cell...

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