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Final Exam and Syllabus

Final Exam and Syllabus - Chapter 10 Gene Expression and...

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Chapter 10 Gene Expression and Regulation I. DNA is the instruction (program) that tells the cell what to do. a. Proteins are the results of those instructions. b. The study of metabolic defects provided evidence that genes lead to proteins. II. This relationship was first proposed by Archibald Garrod in 1909. a. Suggested that some metabolic disorders were caused by a blocked pathway b. Inherited diseases were the result of the lack of an enzyme c. A blockage in a pathway not only stops the production of something we need but it also may lead to the accumulation of something we don’t want. III. The suggestions of Garrod were confirmed in the 1930s a. George Beadle and Edward Tatum conducted an experiment with bread mold, Neurospora crassa , and demonstrated that different mutants (generated by x- rays) had the pathway of arginine (an amino acid) synthesis blocked at different steps. b. Beadle and Tatum deduced that the 3 different mutant types each lacked a different enzyme in the pathway which synthesizes arginine. c. From these results they formulated the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis DNA RNA Proteins IV. Step one-DNA to RNA a. This process is called transcription. b. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA using DNA as a template. c. The RNA is complementary to the DNA. d. RNA that is synthesized from a gene coding for a protein is called messenger RNA (mRNA). e. Differences between DNA and RNA: DNA RNA Strands 2 1 Sugar deoxyribose ribose Types of Bases Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Adenine (A) Uracil (U) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Base Pairs DNA:DNA A-T T-A C-G G-C RNA:DNA RNA:RNA A-T A-U U-A U-A C-G C-G G-C G-C
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Function Contains genes; sequence of bases in most genes determines the amino acid sequence of a protein Messenger RNA (mRNA): carries the code for a protein-coding gene from DNA to ribosome Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): combines with proteins to
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Final Exam and Syllabus - Chapter 10 Gene Expression and...

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