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Ultimate BIOL 139 Review

Ultimate BIOL 139 Review - Biology 139 Genetics Final Exam...

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Biology 139 Genetics Final Exam Review 0cMendelian Genetics Why garden peas? Easy to cross fertilize Large numbers of offspring Short growing season Terms Phenotype:       observable characteristic (largely determined by genotype) Commonly referred to as  a trait Genotype:      genetic make-up Monohybrid Cross:      mating between individuals that only differ in one trait Gene:      unit of inheritance Allele:      alternative form of a single gene Polymorphic:      More than one wild type allele; allele frequency greater than 1% Monomorphic:      Only one wildtype allele; only one allele above 1% frequency Mendel’s law of segregation: The two alleles for each trait separate (segregate) during gamete formation than unite at random,  one from each parent, at fertilization At the DNA level, alleles vary in nucleotide sequence. This can result in:  o New Amino acid sequence o Change in the amount of protein o Eg: Garden peas: R gives the pea a round shape because this version of the Starch  Branching Enzyme is normal. The r allele as a different amino acid sequence and the  enzyme is non-rd Cross :functional (i.e. no branched starch)  Genetic Crosses Test Cross:      Breeding an unknown genotype with the homozygous recessive will reveal its 
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Biology 139 Genetics Final Exam Review genotype. If it was homozygous dominant, all progeny are heterozygous and have the same  phenotype. If it was heterozygous, we would see a 1:1 phenotypic ratio The law of product:      The probability of two or more independent events occurring together is the  product  of the probabilities that each event will occur by itself The law of sum:      The probability of either of two mutually exclusive events occurring is the sum  of their individual probabilities Dihybrid Cross:      Mating of individuals that differ in 2 traits. More phenotypic classes are seen  because there are more allele combinations for independent assortment. Mating between  dihybrids produce a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio Multihybrid Cross:      Matings that differ in 3 or more traits o Huge punnet square. Use a simpler method. Eg. AaBbCcDd x AaBbCcDd o Probability of an AAbbCcDd offspring  ¼  x  ¼   ½  x  ½  = 1/64 o Modifications of Mendellian Ratios Crossing:      When a gene has more  than 2 alleles, reciprocal crosses help determine dominance  relationships by crossing pure breeding lines. A dominance series show most dominant to least  dominant Types of Dominance Incomplete Dominance:       The F 1  Hybrid doesn’t resemble either parent (intermediate phenotype) o E.g. Flower pigments. A red flower and a white flower produce all pink F
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