2_4 - 5 Blood glucose testing involves placing drop of...

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2/4/2010 1 Chapter 15 Aldehydes can be produced by the oxidation of primary alcohols. Ketones can be produced by the oxidation of secondary alcohols.
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2/4/2010 2 In inorganic chemistry oxidation is the loss of electrons, i.e. Fe 2+ becomes Fe 3+ . In inorganic chemistry reduction is the gain of electrons, i.e. Cr 6+ becomes Cr 3+. An organic oxidation is an oxidation that increases the number of C-O bonds and/or a decreases the number of C-H bonds. An organic reduction is a reduction that decreases the number of C-O bonds and/or increases the number of C-H bonds.
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2/4/2010 3 Primary Alcohols to Aldehydes: Secondary Alcohols to Ketones:
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2/4/2010 4 Draw the structure of the aldehyde or ketone formed from the oxidation of the following alcohol Aldehydes and ketones are easily reduced by hydrogen gas (H 2 ), in the presence of a catalyst (Ni, Pt, or Cu), to form alcohols. Aldehydes produces primary alcohols. Ketones yield secondary alcohols. R C O H Ni R C O R R C OH H H R C OH R H + H 2 + H 2 Ni Primary Alcohol Secondary Alcohol
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2/4/2010
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Unformatted text preview: 5 Blood glucose testing involves placing drop of blood on a strip containing a dye and enzyme that oxidizes glucoses aldehyde group. The enzyme causes glucose oxidation to a carboxylic acid with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as a side product. The hydrogen peroxide reacts with the dye to produce a color which is measured to determine glucose concentration. Glucose 2/4/2010 6 Aldehydes and ketones react with alcohols to form hemiacetals and acetals and hemiketals and ketals, respectively. Hemiacetal and hemiketal formation is an addition reaction in which a molecule of alcohol adds to the carbonyl group of an aldehyde of ketone. Hemiacetal Formation 2/4/2010 7 Hemiketal Formation Acetal and Ketal Formation In the presence of a small amount of acid, a hemiacetal and hemiketal react with a second alcohol molecule in a condensation reaction to form an acetal and ketal. 2/4/2010 8 Acetal Formation Ketal Formation...
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2010 for the course CHM 1031 taught by Professor Gow during the Spring '09 term at University of Florida.

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2_4 - 5 Blood glucose testing involves placing drop of...

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