Extra - Organic Chemistry is: Organic Chemistry The study...

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1 Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry is: The study of the nonmineral (mineral being CO, CO 2 , etc.) compounds of carbon. Out of over 10million known compounds, about 9million are carbon compounds and thousands of new ones are reported every year. The variety of organic compounds comes from: a. The stability of chains of carbon atoms (covalently bonded) b. The occurrence of isomers (different arrangements of the same number and types of atoms) c. the variety of functional groups (“add-on” groups of atoms) Originally named “organic” because these molecules were associated with living systems and were considered to contain a “vital force” from God that could not be reproduced in the lab. The first organic molecule synthesized in the lab was Urea, by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. O || NH 4 OCN (aq) + heat → H 2 N-C-NH 2 Ammonium cyanate Urea (Inorganic salt) (Organic) Recall that from the Lewis dot structure that carbon has four valence electrons and is capable of forming four covalent bonds The simplest type of organic molecules are known as hydrocarbons . They consist of only carbon and hydrogen. These are broken down into three sub-catagories: Alkanes (ane suffix in the name): containing only single bonds between the carbons. Also known as saturated hydrocarbons because they contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible. Alkenes (ene suffix in the name): containing at least one double bond between carbons. Alkynes (yne suffix in the name): containing at least one triple bond between carbons. Ways of representing the structure of hydrocarbons Geometry: Tetrahedral Perspective diagram Ball and stick model Space filling model
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2 The name of the hydrocarbon is based on the number of carbons in the chain. Can you identify a general formula for alkanes ? Note the different types of formulas and what information they give If hydrogens are not explicitly shown, it is known as a skeletal structure Question: Name this hydrocarbon and write its molecular and condensed structural formula. Answer: Octane C 8 H 18 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 or CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 CH 3 Many hydrocarbons have branches (also known as substituents or alkyl groups) coming off of their main “parent chain”. Compounds that have the same molecular formula, but different structures are known as structural isomers . The rules (nomenclature) for naming these types of compounds (branched- chain alkanes) requires a series of steps. 1.
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Extra - Organic Chemistry is: Organic Chemistry The study...

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