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FRICTION IN FLUID FLOW
MAE 306
A.
Objective
The objective of this investigation is to compare the experimental and theoretical values
of the friction coefficient for a smooth pipe and various flow rates.
B.
Pressure (Head) Loss due to Friction
L
p
1
p
2
D
u
Fig. 1: Head loss in fluid flow.
Consider the flow in Figure 1.
A fluid flowing down a pipe at velocity
u
will experience
a pressure drop from
p
1
to
p
2
due to internal friction.
The mean flow velocity
u
mean
can be
determined from the volume flow rate
Q
and the crosssectional area of the pipe
A
as:
A
Q
u
mean
=
.
The Reynolds number is defined as:
μ
ρ
D
u
R
mean
e
=
,
where
is the
fluid density
, and
is the
dynamic viscosity
.
These parameters are tabulated as
functions of fluid temperature.
D
is the pipe diameter.
Theoretically, the pressure (head) loss is determined from the
Darcy–Weisbach
equation.
g
u
D
L
f
p
loss
Head
mean
2
2
=
Δ
≡
,
where
L
is the pipe length, , and
g
is the acceleration of gravity.
The
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 Spring '08
 GILBERT
 Fluid Dynamics, Fluid Mechanics, head loss, 2 L, 0.252

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