Ethics final exam study guide

Ethics final exam study guide - Ethics final exam study...

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Ethics final exam study guide What’s the difference between valid and invalid arguments? In order for an argument to be valid the premises most support the conclusions and the conclusion most follow from the premises. An invalid argument at least one of the premises most be false and the conclusion does not follow the premises. What’s the difference between sound and unsound arguments?  A sound deductive argument is the  best kind of argument we can build. If an argument has been proven deductively sound, then its conclusion MUST  be true, no matter how weird or implausible the conclusion seems. If neither of the  conditions are met, then the argument is unsound and its conclusion must be false. What’s the difference between deductive and inductive arguments? Deductive arguments most prove that their conclusions are true and Inductive arguments show that their conclusions are PROBABLY true.Identify the two conditions a sound argument must meet:are either of these conditions necessary or sufficient for soundness? 1. The arguments logical structure 2. The truth of the argument’s premises both conditions must be met in order for the argument to be sound. an argument is VALID if and only if it would be impossible for all of the premises to be true while the conclusion is false . Can a valid argument have a false conclusion? NO because valid arguments are deductive. Arguments are valid if the premises lead to the conclusion without committing a fallacy. If an argument is valid, that means that if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true. Major concepts Speciesism: The assigning of different values or rights to beings on the basis of their species membership. Speciesism is discrimination , and like all discrimination it overlooks or underestimates the similarities between the discriminator and those discriminated against. claim that species membership is inherently morally relevant, so that members of one species thereby automatically get moral priority over others Impartiality: is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. Utility: overall measure of benefits and harms Categorical Imperative: Something that you should do no matter what. Ethical Egoism: morally right action is that which promotes one's individual self interest. Deontology: one of those kinds of normative theories regarding which choices are morally required, forbidden, or permitted. In other words, deontology falls within the domain of moral theories that guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do (deontic theories),
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in contrast to (aretaic [virtue] theories) that — fundamentally, at least — guide and assess what kind of person (in terms of character traits) we are and should be. ( that branch dealing with duty, moral obligation, and right action.) Intuitionism:
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Ethics final exam study guide - Ethics final exam study...

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