Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 11.1 The Environment
PSC 124 Fall 2009 Northrup 1 2 3 Campaign re Baby Seals Baby seals 1980s Novia Scotia industry Stop the Hunt web site 4 What will it take for humans to respond to environmental issues? 5 Overview Key concepts and principles What is the environment? Principles The idea of commons Sustainable development Atmosphere Biodiversity Forests and oceans Pollution Managing the environment Major events 6 Concepts The environment Commons? What "spaces" might be thought of as commons? 7 The Environment Principles Environmental effects are Diffuse spread easily from one place to another Longterm Complex technical, scientific, ethical Large number of actors Specific, shortterm, simple, few actors Tragedy of commons collective goods dilemma 8 How is this a problem for global politics? Solutions to Environmental (Collective Goods) Problems Enclosure Regimes IOs NGOs and grassroots activism *Media *Education *Aliens landing on the quad?
9 Sustainable Economic Development Economic growth that does not deplete resources or degrade environment Three possible human responses to challenges to the environment New technologies allow unabated growth Collapse inability for earth to carry the load of current population and its expected living standard (carrying capacity) Human adaptation limit growth
10 Revolutionary Approach Seek fundamental change in approach to environment Grassroots activists Object to free trade provisions trading off economic growth against environment Longerterm view need to change economic model
*Susan Hunter ontological approach *Stewardship vs. users of resources 11 Major Events First Earth Day 1970 First UN conference on international environment Stockholm 1972 Energy crisis 1973 Chernobyl 1986 Montreal Protocol 1987 Third UN conference Earth Summit 1992 Kyoto Protocol 1997 Copenhagen meetings midDecember
12 Earth Day 1970 U Thant 1971 April 22 US Senator Gaylord Nelson 13 First UN Conference 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment AKA Stockholm conference 113 countries, over 400 IGOs and NGOs Recognized as beginning of modern political awareness of global env'al problems Laid framework for future cooperation Key issue CFCs and ozone layer Global warming mentioned but not dealt with
14 Energy Crisis 1973 Oil crisis of 1973 OPEC said wouldn't ship oil to countries supporting Israel in Yom Kippur War Also agreed to use their position of power to increase price of barrel of oil to quadruple prices Caused inflation worldwide Carter Doctrine and US national security in Middle East
15 Pollution: Chernobyl April 1986 16 Ground Deposits of Radioactive Material Across Europe 1998
An unprecedented release of radioactive materials into the environment 17 Damage to Main Reactor 18 Concerns about Health 19 "Sarcophagus" Deteriorating Planned protective shell Existing sarcophagus 20 Montreal Protocol 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete Hole in ozone layer the Ozone Layer Antarctica 2000 International treaty Based on plan to phase out production of substances that deplete ozone layer NorthSouth issue reduction of emissions is costly; North provides some $ Annan "Perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date...". 21 Pictures of Hole in Ozone Layer
2000 2008 2006 22 The Environment and Security: The Gulf War Burning Oil Wells 23 Third UN Conference 1992 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil First "Earth Summit" Produced the "Rio Declaration" 27 principles aimed at global sustainable development efforts 172 governments, 108 heads of state Major theme sustainable economic development Issues Production of toxins (e.g. lead, pollution) Alternative sources of energy New reliance on public transportation Growing scarcity of water 24 Earth Summit Documents Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Agenda 21 Convention on Biological Diversity Forest Principles Framework Convention on Climate Change 25 Deforestation 26 27 Satellite Imagery of the Amazon 28 Deforestation Globally World deforestation map 29 Biodiversity 1.4 million species have been identified, but this is only a small fraction of total number, scientists believe Many species already extinct Loss of habitat International Agreements: 1971, Wetlands Convention 1973, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) International Whaling Commission
30 Species Preservation CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) 31 Objective: "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." Industrialized countries agreed to reduce collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to 1990 by 2012 Goal to lower emissions of 6 gases including carbon dioxide, methane Emissions trading system
32 Climate Change: Kyoto Protocol 1997 Global North and South Support to developing countries, including China and India (which emit significantly) 1998 VP Al Gore signed, but Clinton administration never sent to Senate for ratification (nonbinding if not ratified) Bush administration refused to implement the KP 2001 statement
33 Kyoto Protocol Countries Dark green - countries that have signed and ratified the treaty (181) Red countries that signed but did not ratify Gray not decided
34 Per Capita Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Country 2000 Data from the World Resources Institute's CAIT 4.0 database 35 Carbon Emissions by Region From US Energy Information Administration Annex I Countries
36 Differential Impact: Global North and Global South Copenhagen meetings NS conflict Poorer countries less capacity to respond to changes from climate change Caterets Islands and climate change video 37 Fairness and NS Tension Difficult to define what is a fair solution who bears what proportion of the cost of change The North doesn't want to bear too much of the cost The South doesn't want to bear too much of the cost because It didn't pollute It needs to pollute to develop, or pay more to develop in a sustainable way 38 38 The effects are diffuse Technical and scientific nature Global nature Corporate interests, corporate power Solutions are costly Politics is shortterm, solutions longterm Economic growth is destructive to the environment Psychological and spatial distance between behavior and consequence Necessitates lifestyle change, change in thinking 39 Why So Difficult? ...
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