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Unformatted text preview: Educational Communications and Technology:
Issues and Innovations Brad Hokanson
Andrew Gibbons Editors Design in
Design Thinking, Design Process,
and the Design Studio Educational Communications and Technology:
Issues and Innovations Series Editors
J. Michael Spector
Dirk Ifenthaler For further volumes:
Brad Hokanson • Andrew Gibbons
Editors Design in Educational
Design Thinking, Design Process,
and the Design Studio Editors
College of Design
University of Minnesota
St. Paul, MN, USA Andrew Gibbons
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT, USA ISBN 978-3-319-00926-1
ISBN 978-3-319-00927-8 (eBook)
Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013946217
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014
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Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Introduction Design—from the Latin designare, to “mark out, point out, describe, design,
contrive”—is a focus for many of the ideas and theories of contemporary educational technology.
As a field of study, design usually includes such disciplines as architecture,
industrial design, graphic design, fashion, landscape architecture, and interior
design. Each has a strong history of research and theory, as well as an established
integration with application and practice, and therefore each parallels in many ways
the work of instructional design and educational technology.
As an architect and graphic designer, I came to the field of educational technology
quite recently. I found that the processes of instructional design mirrored that of
architecture, and I found that the values of graphic design were critical to the design
and development of educational projects. Many of the ideas, concepts, and methods
of these and other design fields are directly useful and supportive of innovation and
planning in educational design.
Three components of the broader concept of design formed the framework of the
2012 AECT Summer Research Symposium and this subsequent volume: design
thinking, design process, and the design studio. The conscious adoption of aspects
of design thinking, evident in a range of divergent professions (including business,
government, and medicine), is widespread in the field of education. Design thinking
is future-oriented, concerned with “the conception and realization of new things,”
and at its core is focused on “planning, inventing, making, and doing” (Cross, 1997,
p. 1), all of which are of value to the field of educational technology. For an instructional designer, understanding the design process is critical, and this understanding
often draws from other traditional design fields such as architecture or industrial
design. Much of the curriculum in educational technology deals with application of
conceptual models of design through an examination of the design process as practiced, of new models for designing, and of ways to connect theory to the development of educational products. Expanding the focus on design process, a number of
leading schools of instructional design have adopted the studio form of education
for their professional programs. Studio-based education is intrinsic to design
v vi Introduction education in many fields and is increasingly important within educational technology. Research and praxis-based observations are critical to effective use of this educational method and were examined as part of the symposium.
For this symposium, proposals focused on design thinking, design process, and
the design studio were solicited from the general membership of the Association of
Educational Communications and Technology and then evaluated by a panel of
experts and the two symposium cochairs. Selected contributors developed their proposal ideas into full chapters, and each chapter draft was distributed to the other
participants for review. All authors gathered for the in-person symposium in July
2012 in Louisville, KY, where discussions and presentations provided a rich and
engaging synergy. Examples and experiences from outside the traditional boundaries of instructional design and educational technology also enriched and balanced
the discussion. This structure formed the basis and the inspiration for the chapters
of this book. From their own viewpoints, from their own academic venues, 15 authors
have expressed their experience and views of design in a process fashioned to elicit
and develop their best ideas and explanations. This design has been critical to this
The symposium was structured using conversational methods based in the Art of
Hosting movement and was a departure from traditional academic conferences and
Authors worked together in an “Open Space” format of structured discussions.
In Open Space, each chapter author hosted three intense discussions with four or
five other discussants. Keynote presentations were made at the beginning and end of
the symposium by Gordon Rowland and Patrick Parrish, whose written versions are
also included in this book.
Andrew Gibbons charts our investigation with a comparison of the design activity in other professional fields such as architecture and digital design to instructional
design. He maps the theories and practices of instructional design to the broader
fields of design and examines the range of scales present in design practice.
Building from the seminal work of Donald Schön in his examination of the architectural design studio, Monica Tracy and John Baaki examine the principle of
Refection-in-Action in terms of theory, design practice, and our understanding of the
design process, illuminating these examples through the lens of a case study of
How instructional designers learn and evolve as practitioners is examined by
Elizabeth Boling and Kennon Smith in their delineating of critical issues in education through the studio. Central to their investigation is a connection with other
fields of design and bringing common essential characteristics to the field of instructional design.
Design and narrative meet in two chapters. In the first, Katherine Cennamo
relates her experiences in pairing two design forms in a multidisciplinary
design studio. Not all design work is alike and different cultures exist in different
disciplines. At the same time, there are lessons to be learned through this innovative studio environment. Subsequently, Wayne Nelson and David Palumbo present
the crossover of an interactive design firm to engagement with instructional design. Introduction vii Blending processes and ideas from product design and user-experience design
informs their work, beginning from their entertainment-oriented experience and
moving toward an educational product.
How people design—whether they are instructional designers, architects, or end
users—is a valuable base for practice and education. Chapters by Lisa YamagataLynch and Craig Howard examine the design process using different methods of
inquiry, but both help us in our quest for understanding. While Yamagata-Lynch
uses Cultural Historical Activity Theory to examine design from an end-user point
of view, Howard builds on an extensive use of the case study method to examine our
own practices of instructional design.
As we have seen in these chapters, instructional design is a diverse field and,
while the specific subject matter is important, it is but one component of education.
Wayne Nelson outlines the possible scope of research and practice and finds ways
to integrate the field beyond traditional educational research. The qualitative and
subjective aspects of instructional design must also be addressed. The specific elements of message design, judgment, and ethics are presented in chapters by M.J.
Bishop, Nilufer Korkmaz and Elizabeth Boling, and Stephanie Moore. Each is critical in a holistic understanding of the field of instructional design, touching on such
questions as how we convey meaning and information, our judgment of quality in
our work, and our responsibilities as designers.
We began the symposium with the idea of the value of design thinking, and Gordon
Rowland, in his chapter, presents a method for improving the use of design in learning and thinking. Design is “a unique and essential form of inquiry,” and Rowland’s
method can advance the use of design as a full-fledged educational component.
Examining design and education encourages us to address larger, more systemic
issues. Marcia Ashbaugh and Anthony Piña examine leadership thinking and how it
could infuse and direct instructional design. How to improve the practice of design
inquiry extends to the full field of education and to leadership in higher education.
Paul Zenke’s chapter examines the role of university leadership as designers.
Challenges abound in the modern age for higher education, and the application of
design thinking and transformation is sorely needed.
Our story, the chapters of this book, began with detailed views of the work of
instructional design and with their inward reflections, and concludes with recognition of the role of instructional design existing in a complex and ill-defined world.
Patrick Parrish identifies this “Half-Known World,” a challenge that must deal with
the learning experience as a whole: as designers, as subject matter experts, as parents, teachers, and learners. Recognizing the flow of the narrative is part of our
fuller understanding of our responsibility to education.
This research symposium and this subsequent publication could not have been
possible without the support of a great organization, and I must acknowledge the
role of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. The organization has always been very supportive of innovative and divergent ideas and was
very receptive and encouraging to my initial concepts for the symposium. The staff
was instrumental in organizing and smoothly presenting the symposium, matching
the standards they set every year at the annual conference. I would also like to viii Introduction specifically thank Executive Director Phillip Harris for his encouragement, support,
and humor in moving the symposium to reality. Jason Huett, Monica Tracey, and
Greg Clinton served as the symposium advisory board and assisted in reviewing
initial proposals with the symposium cochairs. I would also like to thank Stephen
Peters for his editorial help. And specifically, I would like to thank my cochair,
coeditor, and colleague, Andy Gibbons, for his great support and involvement.
Finally, the symposium participants are the ones who bring value to any such
endeavor, and, in the end, are those who are bringing design to the world of educational technology. Thank you each for your participation as authors, as discussants,
and as colleagues in a limitless field.
I hope you find this book as worthwhile and as interesting as it has been in
St. Paul, MN, USA Brad Hokanson Contents Design, Designers, and Reflection-in-Action ................................................
Monica W. Tracey and John Baaki 1 Eight Views of Instructional Design and What They Should
Mean to Instructional Designers....................................................................
Andrew S. Gibbons 15 Critical Issues in Studio Pedagogy: Beyond the Mystique
and Down to Business .....................................................................................
Elizabeth Boling and Kennon M. Smith 37 In Education We All Want to Be Nice:
Lessons Learned from a Multidisciplinary Design Studio ..........................
Katherine Cennamo 57 When Design Meets Hollywood:
Instructional Design in a Production Studio Environment .........................
Wayne A. Nelson and David B. Palumbo 75 Understanding and Examining Design Activities
with Cultural Historical Activity Theory .....................................................
Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch 89 The Rhetoric of Instructional Design Cases:
Knowledge Building Via Examples of Process and Product ....................... 107
Craig D. Howard
The Many Facets of Design and Research in Instructional Design ............ 125
Wayne A. Nelson
Reconceptualizing Instructional Message Design:
Toward the Development of a New Guiding Framework............................ 143
M.J. Bishop ix x Contents Development of Design Judgment in Instructional Design:
Perspectives from Instructors, Students, and Instructional Designers ...... 161
Nilufer Korkmaz and Elizabeth Boling
Ethics and Design: Rethinking Professional Ethics
as Part of the Design Domain ......................................................................... 185
EDISYS: A Tool for Enhancing Design Inquiry .......................................... 205
Improving Instructional Design Processes Through
Leadership-Thinking and Modeling ............................................................. 223
Marcia L. Ashbaugh and Anthony A. Piña
Higher Education Leaders as Designers ....................................................... 249
Paul F. Zenke
Designing for the Half-Known World: Lessons
for Instructional Designers from the Craft of Narrative Fiction ................ 261
Index ................................................................................................................. 271 Design, Designers, and Reflection-in-Action
Monica W. Tracey and John Baaki Keywords Design • Designers • Design thinking • Reflection-in-action • Designer
self-reflection • Ill-structured problems • Design episodes • Design inquiry • Design
exploration • Designer reflective conversation Instructional designers are an integral part of successful design, and as a profession
we are constantly looking to expand and improve our preparation methods in an
effort to best prepare designers. Designers are active, influential change agents who
work in a design space that includes interpersonal dimensions (Cross, 2011). They
bring their own experience, perceptions, and interpretations of design to each project. Research on design in other disciplines indicates that aspects of the design
process include research, reflection, conceptualization, and judgment (Nelson &
Stolterman, 2003). Concepts including designer relation to design are superficially
considered in some instructional design decision-making processes, but designers
have yet to document their reflections during their design activities. Research on
design seldom focuses on the designer while she is actually designing. Without deep
understanding of what actually happens during design, we cannot prescribe
improvements in design or preparing designers (Dorst, 2008). Reflection-in-action
is one activity that may assist designers in improving their design activities. M.W. Tracey (*) • J. Baaki
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
e-mail: [email protected]
B. Hokanson and A. Gibbons (eds.), Design in Educational Technology,
Educational Communications and Technology: Issues and Innovations 1,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-00927-8_1, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 1 2 M.W. Tracey and J. Baaki Design and Design Thinking
Depending on the context, design includes numerous definitions and descriptors.
A summary of a study analyzing the most widely adopted textbooks and official
definitions of the field of instructional design (Smith & Boling, 2009) indicated that
design is a systematic process, represented by models, based on theory, and
grounded in data while focused on problem solving (Tracey & Boling, 2013). When
looking outside of the instructional design field, design is defined as “both a noun
and a verb and can refer either to the end product or to the process” (Lawson, 2006,
p. 3). In general, design is referred to as a generic activity (Lawson, 2006), a process, and a topic of study across disciplines that addresses complex human situations. Design is also defined as a space rather than a process, and design thinking is
abductive (Cross, 2011; Dorst, 2011).
Design thinking incorporating abductive reasoning forces a designer to shift and
transfer thoughts between the required purpose or function and the appropriate
forms for an object to satisfy the purpose (Cross, 2011). In essence, designers move
back and forth between an analysis space (required purpose or function) and a synthesis space (appropriate forms for an object to satisfy the purpose). The core challenge of design thinking is, in parallel, creating a complex object, service, or system
and making it work (Dorst, 2011). Designers come up with the “what” and “how”
and then test both in conjunction (Dorst, 2011, p. 5). Within a design space, designers need to tolerate uncertainty, interact with external representations (sketches,
models, and other materials), rely on intuition, and take stock and reflect on the
what and the how (Cross, 2011).
As instructional designers begin to look to the design worlds of architects, engineering designers, product designers, industrial designers, and software systems
designers to truly understand what happens during design, instructional designers
stand to gain much from reflective practice within design thinking. Cross (2011)
indicates “there has been a significant history in design research of theoretical analysis and reflection upon the nature of design ability” (p. 5). Instructional designers
can embrace best practices from reflection-in-action to assist them in developing
their designer ability (Fig. 1). Designers and Reflection-in-Action
As a specific type of reflective practice (how professionals think during practice),
reflection-in-action emphasizes that unique and uncertain situations are understood
through attempts to change them, and changed through the attempts to understand
the situations (Schön, 1983). Reflection-in-action helps designers deal well with
situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness, and conflicted values that are
inherent in ill-structured problems (Schön, 1983). Design, Designers, and Reflection-in-Action 3 Fig. 1 A conceptual view of reflection-in-action The second author headed a team that designed and developed an Internet
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