Design in Educational Technology_ Design Thinking, Design Process, and the Design Studio ( PDFDrive. - Educational Communications and Technology Issues

Design in Educational Technology_ Design Thinking, Design Process, and the Design Studio ( PDFDrive.

This preview shows page 1 out of 277 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 277 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Educational Communications and Technology: Issues and Innovations Brad Hokanson Andrew Gibbons Editors Design in Educational Technology Design Thinking, Design Process, and the Design Studio Educational Communications and Technology: Issues and Innovations Series Editors J. Michael Spector M.J. Bishop Dirk Ifenthaler For further volumes: Brad Hokanson • Andrew Gibbons Editors Design in Educational Technology Design Thinking, Design Process, and the Design Studio Editors Brad Hokanson College of Design University of Minnesota St. Paul, MN, USA Andrew Gibbons Brigham Young University Provo, UT, USA ISBN 978-3-319-00926-1 ISBN 978-3-319-00927-8 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-00927-8 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2013946217 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Introduction Design—from the Latin designare, to “mark out, point out, describe, design, contrive”—is a focus for many of the ideas and theories of contemporary educational technology. As a field of study, design usually includes such disciplines as architecture, industrial design, graphic design, fashion, landscape architecture, and interior design. Each has a strong history of research and theory, as well as an established integration with application and practice, and therefore each parallels in many ways the work of instructional design and educational technology. As an architect and graphic designer, I came to the field of educational technology quite recently. I found that the processes of instructional design mirrored that of architecture, and I found that the values of graphic design were critical to the design and development of educational projects. Many of the ideas, concepts, and methods of these and other design fields are directly useful and supportive of innovation and planning in educational design. Three components of the broader concept of design formed the framework of the 2012 AECT Summer Research Symposium and this subsequent volume: design thinking, design process, and the design studio. The conscious adoption of aspects of design thinking, evident in a range of divergent professions (including business, government, and medicine), is widespread in the field of education. Design thinking is future-oriented, concerned with “the conception and realization of new things,” and at its core is focused on “planning, inventing, making, and doing” (Cross, 1997, p. 1), all of which are of value to the field of educational technology. For an instructional designer, understanding the design process is critical, and this understanding often draws from other traditional design fields such as architecture or industrial design. Much of the curriculum in educational technology deals with application of conceptual models of design through an examination of the design process as practiced, of new models for designing, and of ways to connect theory to the development of educational products. Expanding the focus on design process, a number of leading schools of instructional design have adopted the studio form of education for their professional programs. Studio-based education is intrinsic to design v vi Introduction education in many fields and is increasingly important within educational technology. Research and praxis-based observations are critical to effective use of this educational method and were examined as part of the symposium. For this symposium, proposals focused on design thinking, design process, and the design studio were solicited from the general membership of the Association of Educational Communications and Technology and then evaluated by a panel of experts and the two symposium cochairs. Selected contributors developed their proposal ideas into full chapters, and each chapter draft was distributed to the other participants for review. All authors gathered for the in-person symposium in July 2012 in Louisville, KY, where discussions and presentations provided a rich and engaging synergy. Examples and experiences from outside the traditional boundaries of instructional design and educational technology also enriched and balanced the discussion. This structure formed the basis and the inspiration for the chapters of this book. From their own viewpoints, from their own academic venues, 15 authors have expressed their experience and views of design in a process fashioned to elicit and develop their best ideas and explanations. This design has been critical to this rich project. The symposium was structured using conversational methods based in the Art of Hosting movement and was a departure from traditional academic conferences and paper presentations. Authors worked together in an “Open Space” format of structured discussions. In Open Space, each chapter author hosted three intense discussions with four or five other discussants. Keynote presentations were made at the beginning and end of the symposium by Gordon Rowland and Patrick Parrish, whose written versions are also included in this book. Andrew Gibbons charts our investigation with a comparison of the design activity in other professional fields such as architecture and digital design to instructional design. He maps the theories and practices of instructional design to the broader fields of design and examines the range of scales present in design practice. Building from the seminal work of Donald Schön in his examination of the architectural design studio, Monica Tracy and John Baaki examine the principle of Refection-in-Action in terms of theory, design practice, and our understanding of the design process, illuminating these examples through the lens of a case study of active designers. How instructional designers learn and evolve as practitioners is examined by Elizabeth Boling and Kennon Smith in their delineating of critical issues in education through the studio. Central to their investigation is a connection with other fields of design and bringing common essential characteristics to the field of instructional design. Design and narrative meet in two chapters. In the first, Katherine Cennamo relates her experiences in pairing two design forms in a multidisciplinary design studio. Not all design work is alike and different cultures exist in different disciplines. At the same time, there are lessons to be learned through this innovative studio environment. Subsequently, Wayne Nelson and David Palumbo present the crossover of an interactive design firm to engagement with instructional design. Introduction vii Blending processes and ideas from product design and user-experience design informs their work, beginning from their entertainment-oriented experience and moving toward an educational product. How people design—whether they are instructional designers, architects, or end users—is a valuable base for practice and education. Chapters by Lisa YamagataLynch and Craig Howard examine the design process using different methods of inquiry, but both help us in our quest for understanding. While Yamagata-Lynch uses Cultural Historical Activity Theory to examine design from an end-user point of view, Howard builds on an extensive use of the case study method to examine our own practices of instructional design. As we have seen in these chapters, instructional design is a diverse field and, while the specific subject matter is important, it is but one component of education. Wayne Nelson outlines the possible scope of research and practice and finds ways to integrate the field beyond traditional educational research. The qualitative and subjective aspects of instructional design must also be addressed. The specific elements of message design, judgment, and ethics are presented in chapters by M.J. Bishop, Nilufer Korkmaz and Elizabeth Boling, and Stephanie Moore. Each is critical in a holistic understanding of the field of instructional design, touching on such questions as how we convey meaning and information, our judgment of quality in our work, and our responsibilities as designers. We began the symposium with the idea of the value of design thinking, and Gordon Rowland, in his chapter, presents a method for improving the use of design in learning and thinking. Design is “a unique and essential form of inquiry,” and Rowland’s method can advance the use of design as a full-fledged educational component. Examining design and education encourages us to address larger, more systemic issues. Marcia Ashbaugh and Anthony Piña examine leadership thinking and how it could infuse and direct instructional design. How to improve the practice of design inquiry extends to the full field of education and to leadership in higher education. Paul Zenke’s chapter examines the role of university leadership as designers. Challenges abound in the modern age for higher education, and the application of design thinking and transformation is sorely needed. Our story, the chapters of this book, began with detailed views of the work of instructional design and with their inward reflections, and concludes with recognition of the role of instructional design existing in a complex and ill-defined world. Patrick Parrish identifies this “Half-Known World,” a challenge that must deal with the learning experience as a whole: as designers, as subject matter experts, as parents, teachers, and learners. Recognizing the flow of the narrative is part of our fuller understanding of our responsibility to education. This research symposium and this subsequent publication could not have been possible without the support of a great organization, and I must acknowledge the role of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. The organization has always been very supportive of innovative and divergent ideas and was very receptive and encouraging to my initial concepts for the symposium. The staff was instrumental in organizing and smoothly presenting the symposium, matching the standards they set every year at the annual conference. I would also like to viii Introduction specifically thank Executive Director Phillip Harris for his encouragement, support, and humor in moving the symposium to reality. Jason Huett, Monica Tracey, and Greg Clinton served as the symposium advisory board and assisted in reviewing initial proposals with the symposium cochairs. I would also like to thank Stephen Peters for his editorial help. And specifically, I would like to thank my cochair, coeditor, and colleague, Andy Gibbons, for his great support and involvement. Finally, the symposium participants are the ones who bring value to any such endeavor, and, in the end, are those who are bringing design to the world of educational technology. Thank you each for your participation as authors, as discussants, and as colleagues in a limitless field. I hope you find this book as worthwhile and as interesting as it has been in its development. St. Paul, MN, USA Brad Hokanson Contents Design, Designers, and Reflection-in-Action ................................................ Monica W. Tracey and John Baaki 1 Eight Views of Instructional Design and What They Should Mean to Instructional Designers.................................................................... Andrew S. Gibbons 15 Critical Issues in Studio Pedagogy: Beyond the Mystique and Down to Business ..................................................................................... Elizabeth Boling and Kennon M. Smith 37 In Education We All Want to Be Nice: Lessons Learned from a Multidisciplinary Design Studio .......................... Katherine Cennamo 57 When Design Meets Hollywood: Instructional Design in a Production Studio Environment ......................... Wayne A. Nelson and David B. Palumbo 75 Understanding and Examining Design Activities with Cultural Historical Activity Theory ..................................................... Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch 89 The Rhetoric of Instructional Design Cases: Knowledge Building Via Examples of Process and Product ....................... 107 Craig D. Howard The Many Facets of Design and Research in Instructional Design ............ 125 Wayne A. Nelson Reconceptualizing Instructional Message Design: Toward the Development of a New Guiding Framework............................ 143 M.J. Bishop ix x Contents Development of Design Judgment in Instructional Design: Perspectives from Instructors, Students, and Instructional Designers ...... 161 Nilufer Korkmaz and Elizabeth Boling Ethics and Design: Rethinking Professional Ethics as Part of the Design Domain ......................................................................... 185 Stephanie Moore EDISYS: A Tool for Enhancing Design Inquiry .......................................... 205 Gordon Rowland Improving Instructional Design Processes Through Leadership-Thinking and Modeling ............................................................. 223 Marcia L. Ashbaugh and Anthony A. Piña Higher Education Leaders as Designers ....................................................... 249 Paul F. Zenke Designing for the Half-Known World: Lessons for Instructional Designers from the Craft of Narrative Fiction ................ 261 Patrick Parrish Index ................................................................................................................. 271 Design, Designers, and Reflection-in-Action Monica W. Tracey and John Baaki Keywords Design • Designers • Design thinking • Reflection-in-action • Designer self-reflection • Ill-structured problems • Design episodes • Design inquiry • Design exploration • Designer reflective conversation Instructional designers are an integral part of successful design, and as a profession we are constantly looking to expand and improve our preparation methods in an effort to best prepare designers. Designers are active, influential change agents who work in a design space that includes interpersonal dimensions (Cross, 2011). They bring their own experience, perceptions, and interpretations of design to each project. Research on design in other disciplines indicates that aspects of the design process include research, reflection, conceptualization, and judgment (Nelson & Stolterman, 2003). Concepts including designer relation to design are superficially considered in some instructional design decision-making processes, but designers have yet to document their reflections during their design activities. Research on design seldom focuses on the designer while she is actually designing. Without deep understanding of what actually happens during design, we cannot prescribe improvements in design or preparing designers (Dorst, 2008). Reflection-in-action is one activity that may assist designers in improving their design activities. M.W. Tracey (*) • J. Baaki Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA e-mail: [email protected] B. Hokanson and A. Gibbons (eds.), Design in Educational Technology, Educational Communications and Technology: Issues and Innovations 1, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-00927-8_1, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 1 2 M.W. Tracey and J. Baaki Design and Design Thinking Depending on the context, design includes numerous definitions and descriptors. A summary of a study analyzing the most widely adopted textbooks and official definitions of the field of instructional design (Smith & Boling, 2009) indicated that design is a systematic process, represented by models, based on theory, and grounded in data while focused on problem solving (Tracey & Boling, 2013). When looking outside of the instructional design field, design is defined as “both a noun and a verb and can refer either to the end product or to the process” (Lawson, 2006, p. 3). In general, design is referred to as a generic activity (Lawson, 2006), a process, and a topic of study across disciplines that addresses complex human situations. Design is also defined as a space rather than a process, and design thinking is abductive (Cross, 2011; Dorst, 2011). Design thinking incorporating abductive reasoning forces a designer to shift and transfer thoughts between the required purpose or function and the appropriate forms for an object to satisfy the purpose (Cross, 2011). In essence, designers move back and forth between an analysis space (required purpose or function) and a synthesis space (appropriate forms for an object to satisfy the purpose). The core challenge of design thinking is, in parallel, creating a complex object, service, or system and making it work (Dorst, 2011). Designers come up with the “what” and “how” and then test both in conjunction (Dorst, 2011, p. 5). Within a design space, designers need to tolerate uncertainty, interact with external representations (sketches, models, and other materials), rely on intuition, and take stock and reflect on the what and the how (Cross, 2011). As instructional designers begin to look to the design worlds of architects, engineering designers, product designers, industrial designers, and software systems designers to truly understand what happens during design, instructional designers stand to gain much from reflective practice within design thinking. Cross (2011) indicates “there has been a significant history in design research of theoretical analysis and reflection upon the nature of design ability” (p. 5). Instructional designers can embrace best practices from reflection-in-action to assist them in developing their designer ability (Fig. 1). Designers and Reflection-in-Action As a specific type of reflective practice (how professionals think during practice), reflection-in-action emphasizes that unique and uncertain situations are understood through attempts to change them, and changed through the attempts to understand the situations (Schön, 1983). Reflection-in-action helps designers deal well with situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness, and conflicted values that are inherent in ill-structured problems (Schön, 1983). Design, Designers, and Reflection-in-Action 3 Fig. 1 A conceptual view of reflection-in-action The second author headed a team that designed and developed an Internet Marketing web course for a major automaker...
View Full Document

  • Summer '17
  • instructional designers

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes