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Key Concepts 15 and 16

Key Concepts 15 and 16 - Key Concepts Topic#15 1 Why aren't...

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Key Concepts Topic #15 1. Why aren't viruses affected by antibiotics? Viruses are not affected by antibiotics because they do not have ribosomes. Antibiotics target ribosomes. 2. Be familiar with the lytic and lysogenic life cycles of viruses. What are the "nasty things" that happen once a virus initiates the lytic cycle? Which host cell enzymes and structures would be co-opted (used) by the virus? Lytic is immediate and it creates a virus factory. Lysogenic splices and hides. Lysogenic also puts their genome into the host cell’s DNA . 3. What are sources of genetic variation in viruses? Mutation and recombination 4. How do the life cycles of the influenza and HIV viruses compare? Which is considered "virulent"? Influenza is virulent because HIV “hides” for a while and does not show up right away whereas Influenza shows up a lot sooner. 5. How do viruses get into cells? What particular problem do plant viruses face? Bind to receptors on host cells. Considering that plant cells have cell walls this poses a problem for plant viruses. Insects are the “vectors” that transport the plant viruses from plant to plant. 6. Specifically, what host cell structures and enzymes are co-opted (used) by the virus? Plasma membrane, vesicles 7. In the NPR audio essay "Flu Attack", a lot of non-technical terms are used. Let's apply the concepts and vocabulary you've learned so far this semester to being more precise. 1. The "keys" on the virus are surface proteins (sometimes referred to as "antigen"); what are the "locks" on the throat cells? What is the name for what happens when "key" and "lock" match? 2. What do the virus "recipes" consist of, and what must they have as part of their structure in order to be taken in by the nuclear pores? 3. What must the "giant pink copying machine" in the nucleus be, and what is the name for the copying? 4. What are the "blue peanut-y things" out in the cytoplasm, and what do they do? 8. What are sources of genetic variation in viruses? Based on what you have learned about this, what is the likely explanation for the new H1N1 swine flu virus that is currently infecting people around the world? (It has elements of pig, bird, and human influenzas.) Mutation and recombination. Viruses must have mutations to travel from one species to another.
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9. How are plasmids related to antibiotic resistance? How do humans actually select for
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