Chapter 11 Life Cycle Nutrition

Chapter 11 Life Cycle Nutrition - Chapter 11 Life Cycle...

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Chapter 11 Life Cycle Nutrition: Nutrition Before Conception A healthful diet before contraception includes: Avoiding teratogens: substances that can cause birth defects Includes alcohol and drugs Avoiding other possible hazards Smoking, medications, some herbs, and supplements Nutrition Before Conception A healthful diet before contraception reduces the risk of developing nutrition- related disorders during pregnancy such as: Neural tube defects Other gestational diabetes preeclampsia Terms used to describe timeline of a Pregnancy A full-term pregnancy lasts 38-42 weeks 1st trimester: conception to the 13 th week 2nd trimester: 14-27 week 3rd trimester: 28 – 42 weeks Zygote – first 2 weeks Embryonic stage: 3 rd weeks to the 8 th week. After the 8th week, the developing baby is called a fetus
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Nutrition During Pregnancy 1 st trimester - Fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube and implants in the wall of the uterus - Development of organs, limb buds, facial features, placenta - Embryos are extremely vulnerable to teratogens during this time Critical Periods - Cell – tissue - organ – system - Development requires nutrients and environment - Interruptions can cause permanent damage Neural Tube Defects Nutrition related problems (Folate) - Embryo neural tube (CNS) - Spina Bifida - Anencephaly - baby with no brain, most of these infants do not survive The Placenta - Organ that develops inside the uterus - Places where maternal and fetal blood circulate in cose proximity and exchange materials - Where fetus receives nutrients and oxygen - Where mother’s blood picks up carbon dioxide and other waste materials from fetus for her to excrete
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Metabolically active organ Produces: Enzymes Hormones Maintain pregnancy Estrogen Progesterone 2 nd trimester - Continued development of organ systems - More than 10 inches of growth during this time - Fetus weights more than 2lbs by the end of the 2 nd trimester - Maternal tissue grows Maternal Tissues Blood – Increase in volume Increase in RBC Decrease nutrient concentration Kidney- Increase in blood flow Increased clearance Nutrient content in urine
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Decreased motility Increased surface area Increased nutrient absorption Uterus – Increase size and blood flow Mammary – Increase blood flow and glandular growth Adipose – Increase fat deposition Immune system – Suppressed 3 rd trimester - Time of considerable fetal growth - Fetus gains 3/4 of its weight in this time Brain growth is also extensive - Lungs become fully mature - A balanced, adequate diet for the mother is essential during this time ** An undernourished mother is more likely to give birth to a low-birth-weight baby. Low birth weight: any baby born weighing less than 5.5 lbs at 37 weeks gestation -Risk factors 40 X higher for infant mortality in first year of life found in low birth weight babies. Nutritional deficiencies coupled with LBW lead to 50% of deaths of children
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Chapter 11 Life Cycle Nutrition - Chapter 11 Life Cycle...

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