Chapter Four - fats - Chapter Four - Fats/Lipids What Are...

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Chapter Four - Fats/Lipids What Are Fats? Fats are one type of lipid. (They do not dissolve in water) Lipids: diverse class of molecules that are insoluble in water. Lipids -A family of chemical compounds -Soluble in organic solvents like gasoline, turpentine and oil. -Insoluble in water and aqueous solutions. -Hydrophobic Three types of lipids are found in foods: Triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols Triglycerides are composed of: -Three fatty acid molecules Fatty acids are long chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms -One glycerol molecule Glycerol is a 3-carbon alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride Fatty acids can differ in: 1. Length of their carbon chain: Short-, medium-, or long-chain 2. Level of saturation: Saturation is how many hydrogen atoms surround each carbon 3.Shape
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**The shape of a triglyceride is determined by the saturation of the carbon chains. Saturated fatty acids can pack tightly together and are solid at room temperature. For example animal fats, butter, and lard are high in saturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids: -Do not stack together well -Are liquid at room temperature -Are present in plant oils May be: Monounsaturated – 1 double bond Polyunsaturated – more than 1 double bond Hydrogenation: The addition of hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids. Converts liquid fats (oils) into a more solid form Used to create margarine from oils Often creates trans fatty acids Trans fatty acids: -Are detrimental to health -Change the way our cell membranes function -Reduce the removal of cholesterol from the blood - Similar in shape to saturated fatty acid -Not made by the body -Naturally occur in tiny amounts mainly in dairy foods and beef -Affect the body’s health
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-Consumption of trans fats -Raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol -Produce inflammation Thus, increasing the risk of heart disease DRI: as little as possible Phospholipids are: Composed of glycerol, _________ fatty acids and a _________ Soluble in water Manufactured in our bodies so they are not required in our diet A critical component of cell membranes Sterols Sterols: Lipids containing multiple rings of carbon atoms -Are essential components of cell membranes and many hormones
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2010 for the course MCB 181R taught by Professor Leonard during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Chapter Four - fats - Chapter Four - Fats/Lipids What Are...

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