Chapter Three – Carbohydrates

Chapter Three – Carbohydrates - Chapter...

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Chapter Three – Carbohydrates What Are Carbohydrates? -One of the three macronutrients -A primary energy source, especially for nerve cells -Composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen -Good sources include fruits, vegetables, and grains -Produced by plants through photosynthesis (C6H1206) **Glucose : the most abundant carbohydrate Simple carbohydrates - Monosaccharides contain only one molecule -Glucose, fructose, galactose (form of lactose) -Disaccharides contain two molecules -Lactose, maltose, sucroseO **Glucose + galactose = lactose **Glucose + glucose = maltose **Glucose + fructose = Complex carbohydrates -Long chains of glucose molecules -Also called polysaccharides -Starch, glycogen, most fibers Starch
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-Plants store carbohydrates as starch -We digest (break down) starch to glucose -Grains, legumes, and tubers are good sources of starch in our diet Fiber -Dietary fiber is the non-digestible part of plants Found in whole grains, vegetables, seeds, legumes, fruits -Functional fiber is carbohydrate extracted from plants and added to food Cellulose, guar gum, pectin, psyllium **Total fiber = dietary + functional fiber Glycogen -Animals store carbohydrate as glycogen -Stored in the liver and muscles -Not found in food and therefore not a source of dietary carbohydrate Why Do We Need Carbohydrates? Energy -Each gram of carbohydrate = 4 kcal -Important energy source for brain cells and red blood cells -Glucose is especially important for energy during exercise **Sufficient carbohydrate intake prevents production of ketones as an alternate energy source **Excessive ketones can result in high blood acidity and ketoacidosis **High blood acidity damages body tissues
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**Insufficient carbohydrate intake causes the body to find an alternate source of glucose Often proteins are broken down and used for _______ – the production of new
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Chapter Three – Carbohydrates - Chapter...

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