Nutrition and Physical Activity

Nutrition and Physical Activity - Nutrition and Physical...

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Nutrition and Physical Activity Why Engage in Physical Activity? Physical activity: any muscle movement that increases energy expenditure promotes physical fitness reduces the risk of chronic disease Exercise: Purposeful, planned physical activity A type of leisure-time physical activity Why Engage in Physical Activity? Regular physical activity: reduces the risk of chronic diseases Physical Fitness Physical fitness: the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, with energy left over to enjoy leisure-time pursuits Physical fitness is composed of: aerobic exercise resistance training stretching Physical Activity Pyramid A sound physical fitness program appropriately overloads the body. Body Response to Exercise Overload principle Hypertrophy - Atrophy - Sound Fitness Program
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The FIT Principle VO 2 max Measure of cardiovascular fitness Cardiovascular adaptations for increased VO2 max Lung capacity Stroke volume RBC Cardiac output Myoglobin Mitochondria Metabolic enzymes Energy for Activity Anaerobic activity Glucose broken down to produce some ATP in cell (doesn’t need O 2 ) Cori Cycle Aerobic activity Glucose, fat and protein broken down to produce a lot of ATP (must have O 2 present) Fuel for Physical Activity Triglycerides (fats) can be metabolized to generate atp, oxidative phosphorylation A very abundant energy source, even in lean people Provides more than twice as much energy per gram as carb For low intensity excerise
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Long duration activities Aerobic breakdown of glucose: occurs in the presence of oxygen yields 36-38 molecules of ATP per glucose Anaerobic breakdown of glucose: occurs in the absence of oxygen yields 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule Fuel for Physical Activity Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the energy carrying molecule in the body Energy is released from ATP as phosphates are broken off the molecule. Fuel for Physical Activity ATP must be generated continuously since muscles store only enough ATP for 1- 3 seconds of activity. After depleting ATP stores, muscles turn to other sources: Creatine phosphate (CR) stores some energy that can be used to make ATP Creatine Fuel for Physical Activity After creatine phosphate, carbohydrates are the next source of energy for the production of ATP. Glucose is the primary carbohydrate used to generate ATP. Glycolysis: first step in the metabolism of glucose Fuel for Physical Activity Glucose and ATP
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Carbohydrate as Fuel h h Carbohydrate Loadingh h h Muscle Fatigue and Soreness Fatigue Lactic acid Depleted creatine phosphate Calcium Depleted glycogen/glucose Psychological factors Soreness Lactic acid Muscle tears Inflammatory reactions Carbohydrates after Exercise Replace lost glycogen -Within ______of exercise Replace lost glycogen between competitions within a day - Within ________ of exercise Use high glycemic Protein and carb for muscle building Fuel for Physical Activity Triglycerides (fats) can be metabolized to generate ATP
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Nutrition and Physical Activity - Nutrition and Physical...

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