TRAD 104The Formula of Autonomy, and Morality as FreedomI. The Formulation: So act that you can regard the will of every rational being as a will giving universal law. According to this formulation, morality is binding for us, because to exercise our capacity of practical reason properly is to subject ourselves to the moral law, to give ourselves the moral law. II. How this formulation follows from the first two: The end in itself formulation states that morality requires each of us to recognize, not just his/her own will, or rational nature, but every will as an end in itself, so that any will’s proper exercise is to be respected; the universal law formulation states that the form of universality is what makes a rule fit to be a moral law; the third formulation combines these two to state that morality requires us to regard the will of every rational being as a will giving universal law. This in turn leads to the idea of the kingdom of ends:
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