exam2noteslecture[1] - 2/17 Wednesday o Air Breathing fish...

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2/17 Wednesday o Air Breathing fish – body temp (same as water) Gill breathing-lose heat. Have efficient circulatory system to maintain heat Cephalopods. Cuttlefish. -2*C equilibrium temp between liquid and solid Fish @-2*C laying eggs on underside of sea ice in depressions Lowest die at 6-8* tropical fish Highest die at 5-6* Antarctic fish overheating o Salt Marsh (diluted seawater) Killifish (fundulus)-live in marshes (not freshwater or seawater). Florida all the way up to Nova Scotia, east coast of U.S. Big difference in temp 2 alleles to code for slightly different proteins Proportion of 2 alleles How far do they move (up and down coast) hundreds of miles, keeps flux of alleles (different proportions) natural selection o Ice fish “bloodless fish” Lack red blood cells Only known vertebrates (as adults) lacking red blood cells All O2 in solution An event or sequence of events-loss of ability to produce hemoglobin, pass along “defect” Evolved: large blood volume and large heart-circulating really fast Best maladaptation – hemoglobin o Ice algae Dirty ice. Coldest community –eating, mating, moving, growing in the Arctic and Antarctic seawaters Function at -10*C Special marine settings: coast lines-where lunar tides most evident; biggest impact Bands of organisms Snails frozen in ice, tide rises and thaws organism 70* wooly caterpillars Violence of ocean incredible flexibility/ strength of seaweed o Deep Sea 2.5-3 mile to bottom of sea Sunlight and seasons disappear 400-500 atm Biggest habitat on Earth. 70% Earths surface. 1 mile thick Most of deep sea food source from upper sea layer-photosynthesis 1 month for it to travel to deep sea, all the way done is preyed upon, 1% reaches the bottom
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Energy poor ecosystem Watery, small, not very many organisms >90% sparse 2/19 o Hydrothermal vents o Riftia Hydrothermal vents up to 3’ long size of baseball bats Annelid worms at deep sea. No mouth, anus, or digestive tract Large organ: nothing but bacteria Blood binds with H2S, carries blood Bacteria oxide to sulfate-waste product export metabolites to animal Sulfide comes from heat of Earth o Weddell: Antarctic Seal. 1 st understood diving mammal Put seals in swimming pool to observe diving Seals cut holes in ice when no water available. Up to 1/3 of a mile dive Longest dive: 70 mins Diversity of dives Crab eater seal: more abundant in Antarctic Max dive 11 mins o Corals Very diverse, all symbioses with microbes 20% fish inhabit here Algae lives in anemic conditions Coral and acacia tree similar Structure: widespread for sun/photosynthesis Biggest threats: bleaching: a disruption of symbioses bacteria leave (zooxanthellae) CO2 increase, increase in carbonic levels in ocean Declining pH levels. Calcified skeletons o Big threat on land: Dissecation Mesic: no change in rates of water loss. Frogs absorb water on ventral surface
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