a1_16_jupiter - Next Stop The Giant Planets Chapter 23...

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Next Stop: The Giant Planets
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Chapter 23: Jupiter - A Giant & Primitive Planet
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Mass comparison of the Planets: Two groups among the Jovian planets: Jupiter and Saturn & Uranus and Neptune
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What you can see of Jupiter using a small telescope.
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Jupiter: The Magnetic Giant The planet has a magnetosphere that resembes Earths’ but its 20,000 times stronger and 1,200 times larger. By studying the variations in the field strength due to a 9.6 degree tilt to the axis of rotation, a internal rotation period of 9 hrs 56 minutes was measured. The planet’s strong magnetic field is affected by the innermost large moon, Io. Volcanic emissions of Io dump tons of SO2 into the magnetic field which gets quickly ionized, producing a huge plasma torus (donut).
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Aurora in Jupiter’s north polar region
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Jupiter’s Overall Structure and Magnetic Field Diagram
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Top : Image of Jupiter showing plasma torus “donut” Bottom: Large yellow blob is overexposed image of Io .
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Jupiter is mostly hydrogen and helium, with traces of heavier atoms that form molecules such as methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), and water (OH2).
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Original Solar Nebula Composition by mass
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Jupiter has less helium than the Sun via a “helium rain out” in the outer atmosphere. Neon dissolves in helium and so it too is removed by the helium rain from the planet’s outer atmosphere.
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Making Giant Planets Rock and ice planetesimals were forming in the outer solar system just before the solar nebula hydrogen-rich envelope dissipated.
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