Unformatted text preview: Personal Space & Touch
Week 11 How close can you go? ....Defining your Space
by Keeping your Distance 2 parallel lines Find a partner across the way One side starts walking towards other side until comfortable talking distance STOP when uncomfortable Keeping your Distance What factors influence comfortable conversation distance? How do we accommodate to make conversations comfortable if someone has "invaded" our personal space? Keeping your Distance What factors influence comfortable conversation distance? Personality Cultural Differences Relationship Emotional state Height What else...... Distance between Couples Crane (1987) mimicked our exercise with married couples. Then he gave each couple a test to measure marital intimacy, desire for change, and potential for divorce. He discovered a relationship between distance and happiness. Distresses couples distance was 25% greater than happy couples. Happy couples stood 11.4 inches apart Distressed couples stood 14.8 inches apart Reach out and Touch Someone Get into a group of 4 2 males 2 females Observers Reach out and Touch Someone Observations Holding Hands Hugs Gender Time Awkward Humor/Laughter Personality Cultural Differences Relationship Emotional state Height What else...... Approach-Avoidance Signals IMMEDIACY the degree of mutual sensory stimulation between people; influenced by: PROXEMICS Interpersonal distance Body orientation Positioning Territorial behavior HAPTICS Nonreciprocal Mutual Touch Tie signs EYE BEHAVIOR Communication Function of Proxemics & Haptics Primary Function: Establish relationships 1. Intimacy Politeness We tend to approach what we like & avoid what we dislike (Andersen, 1999). Degrees of Intimacy Functional/professional Social/Polite Friendship/warmth Love/Intimacy Sexual Communication Function of Proxemics & Haptics Primary Function: Establish relationships 2. Control Territorial invasion Threat displays Status reminders Identification: A significant secondary
function 1. Gender Differences Women Differ in interpretation of space & touch use more immediacy behaviors than men more likely to be the targets of: Territorial invasions Threat displays Status reminders Identification 2. Cultural Differences Contact vs. Noncontact cultures Distance differences Difference in greeting & departure rituals Touch Subcultures differences also exist Context, relationship & personality may exert more of an influence than culture Identification 3. Personality Differences Contact = extroverts, impulsive, self-disclosing, sociable, assertive, expressive Self-esteem is positively related to the use of immediacy behaviors Use of immediacy behavior leads to favorable first impressions Firm handshake is related to a positive personality trait Space... Proxemics Coined by a researcher E.T. Hall in 1963 The study of the way in which humans use and communicate with space. Hall argued that differing cultural frameworks for defining and organizing space, which are internalized, can lead to serious failures of communication and understanding in cross-cultural settings. Territoriality Territoriality is relatively stationary. Semi-fixed space is often the criteria used to establish a territory within any environment. safety zone Personal zone accompanies the individual. Fixed and Semifixed Space Furniture, buildings and cities, walls. Every culture has internalized expectations about how these areas should be organized. United States cities, for instance, are customarily set out along a grid, a preference inherited from the British, but in France and Spain a star pattern is preferred. Categories of Territory Primary - used by owner every day Secondary - meeting place Public - beach, parking spaces, theater seats Interactional - conversation in hallway Body - personal space How do we defend our territory?
Humans, like animals, indicate their ownership of territory and will consequently defend it against all invasions. Markers - personal artifacts Labels - KEEP OUT! Offensive Displays - posture, stances, stares, gestures Tenure - people who have become associated with a particular territory Factors Influencing Territorial Defense 1. Who violated your territory? 2. Why did they? 3. What type of territory was it? 4. How long did the encroachment last? 5. Will it happen again? Defining Space Public space - the area of space beyond which people will perceive interactions as impersonal and relatively anonymous. 12 feet + Social spaces - the spaces in which people feel comfortable conducting routine social interactions with acquaintances as well as strangers. 4-12 feet Business Relationships Begins Personal space - "bubble" of space surrounding a person. Entry into this space is acceptable only for the closest friends. The area that humans control and use most often. 2-4 feet Intimate space - the closest "bubble" of space surrounding a person. Entry into this space is acceptable only for the closest friends. 0-2 feet Public Space 12 feet & beyond Personal Space 2-4 feet Social Space 4-12 feet Intimate Space Violations Occur when not aware of zones or their meaning. The result is tension and suspicion. Attention then shifts to the other person and their behavior and away from the conversation. The result is often a complete breakdown in communication. Approach-Avoidance Express (1) interest/disinterest or (2) respect/disrespect Intrinsic Codes Innate General Adaptation Syndrome Invasion sets off a protective response (Burgoon, Buller & Woodall, 1996) 1. Physiological - increased heart rate, blood pressure 2. Behavioral - anxiety, gaze aversion, nervous gesture, indirect body orientation 3. Flight 4. Decline in Task Performance, cannot think clearly 5. Emotional - anger, hostile, irritable, unsocial. Approach-Avoidance Iconic Codes Mimics the real thing 1. Deceptive - objective to get away with a performance 2. Put on - not disingenuous; i.e...play fight, anger stare 3. Take place of action - sign, i.e... goodbye kiss 4. Abridged version of anticipated action signaling what should come next Approach-Avoidance Arbitrary CONTEXT: where we are, who we are with, what we are doing & when we are doing it. Not everyone learns the same social rules Cultural norms Proxemics: Cultural Differences In the United States, conversation social distance 47 feet (Social). Northern Europe, Asia Europe half that 2-4 feet (Personal). Mediterranean, Arab, Latin Americans traveling overseas often experience the urgent need to back away from a conversation. Homework Assignment #6 1. Use at least 3 of the following concepts from chapter 5 to explain your findings: a. Equilibrium Theory b. Compensatory reaction c. Arousal-labeling Model d. Reciprocity e. Expectancy Violations Model f. Discrepancy Arousal Model g. Territorial Invasion h. Threat Displays 2. Find an elevator that tends to be busy (on campus, mall, hospital, library). Once you do, (1) observe how people behave in this crowded elevator (at least 3 other people). Report your nonverbal finding. (2) Lastly, turn around in an elevator and face the other occupants. Observe and report people's nonverbal reactions to your behavior. *Remember to use the concepts listed above to frame your findings. Touch.... Haptics The study of the type, amount, use of, and the result of tactile behavior. Tactile Communication Begins in the womb Infants are nurtured and caressed in the womb Helps to establish the foundation of all other forms of communication Touch Behavior: Change
over time As infants you receive more touch from other human beings than you will receive for the rest of your life Peak time for touch: 14 months - 2 years Touch decreases consistently after this period Touch: Life Cycle
Gradually less touch as you get older Adolescents 1/2 that of an elementary school child Adult restricted to greeting and goodbyes; more rule governed Use Licensed touchers Other mean to attain infant comfort Pets, smoking, bottles Senior Citizens Most touch deprived of any group Benefits of Touch despite our Norms Jourad (1966) Psychologist San Juan, Puerto Rico - 180 Paris, France - 110 Gainesville, Florida - 2 London, England - 0 North Americans, British, Germans, Finns and Japanese have the least amount of body contact NVBP (Nonvulnerable Body Parts) In the U.S. - hand, arm, shoulder & upper back Touch Apprehension Gender Females are usually more touch oriented than males Males are more touch apprehensive Age Older and married individuals are highly avoidant of members of the opposite sex 20% of the U.S. is extremely touch apprehensive Harry Harlow (1963) Infant monkeys Experiment Separated from their mothers Raised instead with substitute mothers made either of heavy wire or wood covered with soft terry cloth Even when the wire mother was the source of nourishment, the infant monkey spent a greater amount of time clinging to the cloth surrogate. Terry Cloth vs. Wire Mother
The tactile comfort seemed to exceed the need for the infant monkeys to nurse. How important is Touch? Touch Deprivation can have negative effects "FAILURE TO THRIVE" Those who do not receive what is needed in order to grow and develop as expected. Children and elderly most affected Can result in reduced learning, social problems or depression Expressive Touch Saves Lives End of WWII SOCIAL PROBLEM: Death rate of babies in orphanages was extremely high despite being well fed and instrumental needs being met. SOLUTION: Hire older women, widowed or childless, who could provide expressive/caring touch (not just instrumental). RESULTS: (1)Touching, holding, rocking and caring for babies literally saved their lives. (2) The older women whom had lost family members in the war, survived and thrived thanks to the infants. Cross Cultural Research: Amount of
Infant Touch affects Violence Levels and Sexual Expression Prescott (2002) - National Institute of Child and Health and Human
Development data from 49 tribal cultures Cultures that exhibit high levels of infant physical affection lower violence rates high acceptance of sexual expression Cultures that were not very physically affectionate toward infants violence rates were elevated highly sexually repressed Lack of and Negative Touch can lead to Violence In history, Hitler's behavior is consistent with Prescott's findings. Hitler was not close to either parent Documentation of abuse from father Hitler was largely asexual. He unleashed more violence in the world than probably any other person. Negative Touch
CHILD ABUSE In the United States, 4 children die each day as a result of child abuse. A report of child abuse is made every 10 seconds 1/3 of abused children will later abuse 1530 in 2006 Source: "Fatalities." Child Maltreatment 2006. 2006. Administration for Children and Families. <http://www.acf.hhs.gov>. Domestic Violence 73-85% of all domestic violence victims are female. Domestic violence is the leading cause of injury to women. Women are more likely to be attacked by someone they know rather than by a stranger. http://www.ncadv.org/takeaction/DonateAPhone_234.html Source:Office of Justice Programs. <Http://www.ojp.usdov.gov> http://www.laurashouse.org/lhteen/ Were you or your partner abused as a child? Is your partner controlling or jealous? Do you feel as if you have to walk on pins and needles sometimes to keep your partner from getting angry? Is your partner good to you most of the time -- sometimes downright wonderful -- but every once in a while very cruel or scary? Has your partner threatened to commit suicide? Has your partner forced you to do something you didn't want to do? Have you lost all or most of your friends since you've been with your partner? Do you feel emotionally numb? Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE Family Violence ...
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- Spring '10
- Cultural Differences Relationship, Personality Cultural Differences