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Chapter4_Stoichiometry

Chapter4_Stoichiometry - Chapter 4.1 Chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4.1 Chemical Quantities (Stoichiometr y) Chemical Equations • Symbolic representation of a chemical reaction that shows: 1. reactants on the left and products on the right; 2. States of matter for each; 3. relative amounts of each using stoichiometric coefficients. 2 Chemical Equations • Points to remember: – A coefficient operates on all the atoms in the formula that follows it; – Chemical formulas cannot be altered when balancing equations; – No other reactants or products can be added when balancing equations; – Use the smallest whole number to balance equations. 3 Chemical Equations • Balance the chemical equation for the reaction of NH 3 burning in oxygen gas to form nitrogen monoxide & water. 4 Chemical Equations • Balance the chemical equation for the reaction of C 7 H 16 burning in oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water. 5 Concept of Reaction Stoichiometry • The numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction is called stoichiometr y . • A balanced chemical equation is like a recipe. ? H C of moles 6 from produced be can CO of moles many How 18 8 2 O H 18 CO 16 O 25 H C 2 2 2 2 18 8 + → + 6 Stoichiometric Calculations From the mass of Substance A you can use the ratio of the coefficients of A and B to calculate the mass of Substance B formed (if it’s a product) or used (if it’s a reactant) 7 8 Example – Estimate the mass of CO 2 produced in 2004 by the combustion of 3.4 x 10 15 g gasoline • assuming that gasoline is octane, C 8 H 18 , the equation for the reaction is: 2 C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25 O 2 ( g ) → 16 CO 2 ( g ) + 18 H 2 O( g ) • the equation for the reaction gives the mole relationship between amount of C 8 H 18 and CO 2 , but we need to know the mass relationship, so the Concept Plan will be: g C 8 H 18 mol CO 2 g CO 2 mol C 8 H 18 Example – Estimate the mass of CO 2 produced in 2004 by the combustion of 3.4 x 10 15 g gasoline 1 mol C 8 H 18 = 114.22g, 1 mol CO 2 = 44.01g, 2 mol C= 44....
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Chapter4_Stoichiometry - Chapter 4.1 Chemical...

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