Ch31nEx15Fungi_5_

Ch31nEx15Fungi_5_ - Figure 31.0 Painting of indigo milk...

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Figure 31.0 Painting of indigo milk cap ( Lactarius indigo ) fungus as an example of the variety in color and types of fungi Domain Eukarya, Ch 31 Kingdom Fungi: 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption 31.2 Fungi reproduce via spores through sexual or asexual life cycles 31.3 Fungi are descended from aquatic, flagellated choanoflagellates (Opisthokonts). Oldest fungal fossils date to 460 MYA, but DNA chronometer studies date to 1.3 BYA 31.4 Fungal phyla include Chytridomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, (Glomerulomycota) and ‘Deuteromycota’. Fungal “partnerships” include Lichens and Mycorrhizal fungi 31.5 Fungi have a powerful impact on ecosystems and human welfare Yes, me! Figure 32.3
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Fig 31-2: What IS a Fungus? Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi: Absorptive heterotrophs Most have a filamentous body plan (hyphae in mycelium) (Yeasts are unicellular) Cell wall of Chitin Reproduce by spores , sexually or asexually Look on the next slide: What is the difference between Septate Hyphae and Coenocytic Hyphae? The largest part of the fungi: underground!
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Nuclei Cell wall (chitin) Septum Pore (a) Septate hypha Haploid nuclei Cross-walls dividing cells (b) Coenocytic hypha Haploid nuclei No cross-walls separate nuclei - Large cell with shared cytoplasm! Cell wall Nuclei Fungi and Seedless Plants - Terms to know: 1. Hyphae: filament that collectively makes up the body of a fungus. 2. Mycelium: The densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus. 3. Septa: the cross–walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell. 4. Coenocytic (SYN-o-cytic): a multi–nucleated condition resulting from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division 5. Dikaryotic: A cell having 2 nuclei, one from each parent Figure 31.3 The basic fungal unit: The Hyphae
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4 Main Phyla: 1. Chytridomycota “Chytrid fungi” Earliest fungal group: Recently added to kingdom Fungi based on 18S rRNA, chitin cell wall - 1.3 billion years old. -Produce flagellated spores called zoospores -Found in aquatic habitats, moist soil - Parasitic chytridomycota infect plants, animals - Chytridiomycosis implicated in the current decline of amphibian populations worldwide … snif! 2. Zygomycota “Zygote fungi” (Next slide) Example: Bread mold, strawberry mold 1. Coenocytic hyphae - many haploid nuclei per hyphae 2. Sexual spores produced in zygospore 3. Asexual spores produced in sporangia . 4. Mutualism : mycorrhizal associations with plants. 5. 600 species , mostly terrestrial habitats. (Note: Campbell mentions one additional phylum, Glomeromycota, …more later)
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Examples of Zygomycota spotted in their natural habitat Fungal hyphae Asexual Sporangium Sexual Zygospore Be sure to find these two structures on the Rhizopus (bread mold) slides!
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Morchella esculenta ). Credit: © Bill Beatty/Visuals
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This note was uploaded on 05/05/2010 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Vaughan during the Spring '10 term at IUPUI.

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Ch31nEx15Fungi_5_ - Figure 31.0 Painting of indigo milk...

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