AP Psychology: Testing and Individual DifferencesLove these notes? Check out Kaplan’s AP Psychology Prep Plus bookon Amazon. Key Takeaways: Testing and Individual Differences1.Intelligence refers to general cognitive ability and is assessed by a number of different kinds of tests. Intelligence research and testing remains controversial because of disagreements about the meaning ofintelligence. 2.Different theories present a range of definitions of intelligence. Early theories posited a single general intelligence that applied to all mental abilities. More recent theories have suggested there are multiple kinds of intelligence. 3.IQ tests were originally developed for children and measured abstractverbal abilities as a way to assess intelligence. Modern IQ tests employ both verbal and nonverbal questions to assess intelligence. When developing intelligence tests, researchers strive for high measures of validity and reliability. 4.Cultures place importance on the type of intelligence that is most applicable to their societies. IQ tests may have to be revised to reducecultural bias.Key Terms: Testing and Individual Differences What is Intelligence?● Intelligence: The ability to solve problems, learn from experience, and use knowledge to adapt to novel situations. ●Aptitude tests: Tests designed to predict future performance in an ability. ●Achievement tests: Tests designed to assess current performance in an ability. ●Speed tests: Tests that assess quickness of problem solving by offering many questions in limited time. ●Power tests: Tests with questions of increasing difficulty, used to assess the highest-difficulty problem a person can solve.