Chapter 3_post

Genetics: A Conceptual Approach

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Chapter 3 Basic Principles of Heredity Dr. Ed Otto George Mason University
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Key objectives Understand Mendel’s experiments and his principles of segregation and independent assortment Understand how Mendel’s principles relate to meiosis Learn how to predict the outcome of genetic crosses using the Punnett square and rules of probability Understand concepts of dominance and incomplete dominance Learn to evaluate genetic data using chi square statistical test
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Gregor Mendel
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Gregor Mendel (1822 – 1884) Mendel is considered the father of genetics He was a priest who lived in Austria, and he conducted genetic experiments that led to the discovery of the basic principles of inheritance He published his finding in 1866, but the significance of his discovery was unrecognized for another 34 years He died unrecognized for the importance of his contribution to genetics
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Factors in Mendel’s Success 1. He adopted an approach and interpreted his results using mathematics 1. He used the pea plant for his genetic crosses Easy to cultivate Grows rapidly, completes an entire generation in one growing season Produces many offspring 1. There were a large variety of peas available that differed in various traits and were true-breeding 1. He chose to study genetic characteristics that were easily differentiated
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Seven Characteristics Studied by Mendel
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Genetic Terminology
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Genetic Terminology Characteristic (or character) - general attribute or feature Trait - the appearance of a specific characteristic Phenotype - the manifestation or appearance of a characteristic Example : Seed shape Round or wrinkled
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Gene - a genetic factor (region of DNA) that determines a characteristic Alleles - alternative forms of a gene Genetic Terminology Example : Gene that controls seed shape Allele R : form of gene that encodes round seeds Allele r : form of gene that encodes wrinkled seeds Genotype - is the set of alleles that an individual organism possesses
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Genetic Terminology General Specific Phenotype Characteristic Trait Genotype Gene Allele General Specific Phenotype Seed shape Round or wrinkled Genotype Gene encoding shape R (round) or r (wrinkled) Example:
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Genetic Terminology A diploid organism possesses two alleles Homozygous - possesses two identical alleles Heterozygous - possesses two different alleles Locus - specific place on the chromosome occupied by an allele (plural: loci) Example : Genotype: RR or rr Genotype: Rr
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Genetic Terminology Pair of homologous chromosomes from a heterozygous ( Rr ) individual:
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Monohybrid Crosses
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Mendel’s Monohybrid Cross Experiments Mendel began by studying monohybrid crosses crosses between parents that differ in a single characteristic In one experiment, Mendel crossed two plants Parent 1: plant that always produced round seeds when crossed with itself Parent 2: plant that always produced wrinkled seeds when crosses with itself First generation of a cross is called the P generation
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This note was uploaded on 05/06/2010 for the course BIO 311 taught by Professor Otto during the Spring '10 term at George Mason.

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Chapter 3_post - Chapter 3 Basic Principles of Heredity Dr....

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