Additional slides from lecture 2

Genetics: A Conceptual Approach

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Mitosis
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Important in : - Asexual reproduction (e.g. yeast) - Proliferation of somatic cells in multicellular organisms (e.g. skin cell)
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Mitosis Interphase Cell Cycle
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Mitosis G 1 G 2 S (DNA Synthesis) Cell Cycle
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Before S phase : Each chromosome = 1 DNA molecule = 1 chromatid Mitosis G 1 G 2 gene gene gene S (DNA Synthesis)
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Mitosis G 1 G 2 After S Phase : Each chromosome = 2 identical DNA molecules = pair of sister chromatids gene gene gene S (DNA Synthesis) Before S phase : Each chromosome = 1 DNA molecule = 1 chromatid
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Mitosis 4 chromosomes; each chromosome = pair of sister chromatids 8 chromosomes; each chromosome = one chromatid individual chromosomes line up chromatin condenses into chromosomes individual chromosomes separate
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Genetic Consequences of the Mitosis Mitosis produces two cells that contain the same genetic information No reduction in chromosome number A diploid parent cell divides and gives rise to 2 diploid daughter cells 2n 2n 2n
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Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis
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Whereas asexual reproduction and mitosis produce cells that are genetically identical… Sexual reproduction provides a means to produce genetically variable offspring
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Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction consists of two processes: 1.Meiosis- process that leads to the production of gametes in which the chromosome number is reduced by half (haploid) 1. Fertilization- process in which two haploid gametes fuse and restore chromosome number to its original diploid value
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Meiosis homologous chromosome pairs
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