Additional slides from lecture 22

Genetics: A Conceptual Approach

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Modification of histone proteins DNA methylation Histones acetylated Histones deacetylated CpG islands methylated CpG islands unmethylated Process Status Chromatin configuration (open or closed) Gene expression (higher or lower) open closed higher lower open higher closed lower Affects frequency of transcription
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Binding of transcription activator proteins to regulatory promoters or enhancers Transcription activator protein absent Process Status Gene expression (higher or lower) Transcription activator protein present Binding of repressor proteins Repressor protein absent Repressor protein present Lower Affects frequency of transcription Higher Higher Lower
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mRNA stability No 5’ cap Process Status Gene expression (higher or lower) 5’ cap Poly(A) tail No Poly(A) tail mRNA stability (higher or lower) Lower ( more rapidly degraded ) Higher Higher Lower ( more rapidly degraded ) Lower Higher Higher Lower Premature stop codon in coding sequence Higher Lower ( nonsense mediated mRNA decay ) Higher Lower Wild-type coding sequence Affects level of mRNA available for translation
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