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CHAPTER 11-ELASTOMERIC FIBERS - “natural or synthetic polymer which @ room temp can be stretched repeatedly to @ least twice its original length and which after removal of tensile load will immediately and forcibly return to approx. its original length” - Have extremely low glass transition temp—exhibit plastic (deformable) behavior @ room temp - Several generic fiber classifications: spandex, rubber, anidex (no longer produced) , & elastoester (manufactured in Japan; newest) - Rubber: orig. elastomeric fiber; several types defined by FTC; have only ltd. Uses - Spandex: 1 st commercially successful synthetic elastomeric SPANDEX - Manufactured in US since ‘59 - Extensive use in stretch fabrics for foundation garments, sports apparel, fashionable clothing, & other products where elasticity important - “manufactured fiber in which fiber forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polymer comprised of @ least 85% of segmented polyurethane” - Elastane —generic name used globally - Block copolymer w/rigid aromatic segments connected by urethane linkages to polyether or polyester segments o Diff. types referred to as “polyether spandex” or “polyester spandex” (not to be confused with polyester/spandex blended fabric) - In polyurethane structure, polyether or polyester segments are amorphous & assume randomly coiled position when fibers relaxed o When stretched, these coils straighten—providing high elongation o Upon release of tension, amorphous (soft) segments coil up again—returning fiber to prestretched position o Rigid urethane segments form highly hydrogen-bonded crystalline areas—preventing polymers from o **chains can be cross-linked to provide further integrity - Manufacture o Process similar to aramid fibers o Lycra® Fibers then dry spun from solution of dimethyl formamide
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sticking together of individ. Fibers **fusing into bundles strengthens for subsequent processing o Glospan®--RadiciSpandex reaction Spinning— prepolymer of shorter length extruded into wet spinning bath—contacts compound that
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