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137 Chapter 6 Overview of Size Characterization Techniques Contents 6.1 Overview of Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 6.2 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 6.3 Survey of Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 6.3.1 Air Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 6.3.2 Chord Length Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 6.3.3 Condensation Particle Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 6.3.4 Dynamic Light Scattering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 6.3.5 Electrical Mobility Analyzers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 6.3.6 Electrical Sensing Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 6.3.7 Electro-Acoustic Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 6.3.8 Flow Cytometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 6.3.9 Hegman Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 6.3.10 Hydrodynamic Chromatography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 6.3.11 Image Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 6.3.12 Impaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 6.3.13 Laser Diffraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 6.3.14 Microscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 6.3.15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 6.3.16 Optical Particle Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 6.3.17 Phase Doppler Anemometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 6.3.18 Sedimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 6.3.19 Sieving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 6.3.20 Size Exclusion Chromatography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 6.3.21 Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 6.3.22 Time of Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 6.3.23 Ultrasound Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 6.4 Definitions, and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Annex 6A: Correlation of Results from Different Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Annex 6B: Characteristic Aerosol Mobility Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 H.G. Merkus, Particle Size Measurements, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9015-8_6, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Good practice requires: basic understanding of techniques and their limitations adequate qualification/calibration of instruments representative, well-dispersed sample validated measurement procedures (SOP) adequate training and experience for operators attention to detail adequate reporting
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138 6 Overview of Size Characterization Techniques 6.1 Overview of Particle Size Measurement Techniques Size range, μm Type of size Type of quant. Sample types Sample size Meas. time, min. Quality Invest. Costs, k€ In-/on line Chord length 0.5–3,000 Number A,E,Pa, Su small <1 - 10–50 yes DLS - normal - opt.fiber 0.005-1 Hydro-dynamic Scatter intensity A,E,Pa, Sp,Su 1 no Electro-acoustics 0.005–1,000 Volume Su 10 ++ 50 no Electrical mobility 0.0025–1 A small/ medium ~1 50–80 ESZ 0.5–1000 2 Flow cytometry 0.5–400 Volume/Others E,Su >50 Hegman gage 2–250 Thickness + <3 Hydrodyn. chromatogr. 0.01–20 Mass +/- >10 Image analysis 500–10 5 Area/Length/ShapeNumber Pa,Sp, Su +(+) 3–50 Impaction 0.01–50 Aero-dynamic A,Pa 1–25 Laser diffraction 0.1–10 4 Scatter diameter
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6.1 Overview of Particle Size Measurement Techniques 139 Microcopy - optical - SEM - TEM 0.3–500 0.01–500 0.001–5 Length/Shape/ Structure Number E,Sp,Su E,Su very small 10 + <10 >10 yes no NMR 0.3–20 Volume Model E medium +/- >50 (yes) Opt. part. counters 0.1–200 Cross section A,E,Pa, Sp,Su small/ medium 3 3–35 Phase Doppler 1–1,000 small 1 +(+) Sediment. - gravity - centrif. - SFFF 0.3–200 0.02–10 0.02–50 Stokes’ diameter +diffusion Mass Mass/opt. Optical Su small/ medium 30 15 30 ++ ++ 3–50 10–50 50 no Sieving 5–10 5 Sieve Mass P,Su large 20 1–20 SEC/GPC 0.01–1 10–50 SAXS 0.003–0.3 E,P,Su - Time of flight 0.5–200 Aerodynamic A,Pa <1 30–40 Ultrasound attenuation 0.01–3,000 US–attenuation medium/large Notes: a Sample types: A = aerosol; E = emulsion; P = powder; Pa = powder dispersion in air; Sp = spray; Su = suspension. b Author’s impression of quality composed of mainly precision, resolution and sensitivity.
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140 6 Overview of Size Characterization Techniques ±6.2± ±Introduction±
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This note was uploaded on 05/06/2010 for the course MECH. 28197 taught by Professor Dr.shafii during the Spring '10 term at Sharif University of Technology.

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fulltext_005 - Chapter 6 Overview of Size Characterization...

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