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fulltext_013 - Chapter 14 In and On-Line Measurement...

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349 Abstract: To a large extent, PSD analyses are executed off-line in an analytical laboratory. The advantage of the laboratory is that a variety of techniques, trained analysts and standard operating procedures (SOP’s) are available. Moreover, both instruments and procedures can be checked at regular time intervals, so that good quality assurance is possible. On the other hand, instrumentation for the produc- tion line and near-proximity to the line has become available. Such instruments allow frequent analyses without any dead time. Thus, they are very well capable of monitoring and controlling production processes in order to deliver targeted products within narrow limits. This chapter discusses the instrumental options for PSD analysis together with their advantages and disadvantages. Also, qual- ity requirements for process monitoring and control together with available tech- niques are described. It can be expected that more and more on- and in-line PSD instruments will be used in the future. Chapter 14 In- and On-Line Measurement Good practice requires: knowledge of process and product well-chosen (quality for) PSD parameter(s) good choice of sampling/measurement location(s) understanding of measurement limitations good sense for reality in view of costs statement on instrument qualification Standard Operating Procedures and Protocol Contents 14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 14.2 Options for Particle Size Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 14.3 Quality Aspects for Process Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 14.4 In-/On-Line PSD Measurement Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 14.5 Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 14.6 Practical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 14.7 Future Prospects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 14.8 Definitions, Abbreviations and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 14.9 Instrument Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 H.G. Merkus, Particle Size Measurements, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9015-8_14, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009
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350 14 In- and On-Line Measurement 14.1 Introduction Traditionally, all serious analyses were done in an analytical laboratory by trained analysts. There was little equipment available and a lot of knowledge and skills were required to obtain good results. The advent of electronics, lasers and com- puters has changed this situation drastically. First, instrumental techniques became available for all kinds of analytical measurements. It began with simple instruments, such as for temperature, pH and color, but fairly soon more complex instruments were developed, such as chromatographs, nuclear magnetic resonance instruments, mass spectrometers, and PSD-measurement instruments based on different princi- ples. Gradually, these instruments became more stable, simpler in operation and automated and, thus, required less operational skills. This resulted in a split of analytical activities. On the one hand an analytical laboratory is still present for selection or development of instruments, for development of analytical methods, for execution of complex analyses, for verification of analytical results and for problem solving. On the other hand there came analytical, mostly automated instruments for fast monitoring of production processes or product shipments in the factory. At
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