Internet chpt 04 - Page of 7 1 CHM 1120 Dr. Adams CHM 1120...

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Page of 7 CHM 1120 Dr. Adams CHM 1120 Chapter 4 (2-04) Dr. Adams There are different ways to view the world around us. Macroscopic vs. Microscopic vs. Atomic -naked eye -1,000X -atom sizes are about 10 -10 m magnification In chemistry we like to imagine what things looked like if we could be the size of atoms. We try to imagine what other atoms and compounds would look like at the level of the atom. 4.2 Atomic Theory (pg 92) John Dalton came up with an atomic theory of matter in the 1800’s. Don’t worry about memorizing the four components. Focus on understanding the concepts. 1. All matter is made up of atoms , which are indestructible by ordinary means. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical in their chemical properties. (We now know about isotopes of an element.) 3. Atoms of different elements have different chemical properties. 4. Atoms of different elements can chemically combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds. H 2 O N 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 NaCl etc. Atoms are very small. They range in size from about 1-5 Angstroms. An Angstrom is equal to 10 -10 meter. -An element is matter composed of one kind of atom. -A compound is matter that is composed of different kinds of atoms, chemically combined in small whole-number ratios. -A mixture is matter that is a physical combination of 1
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Page of 7 particles of elements and/or compounds and has a variable composition. 4.4 Inside the Atom -Atoms occupy a spherical volume. -Most of the volume of an atom is empty space. -Most of the mass of an atom is found in the small region in the center of the atom called the nucleus . -Neutrons and protons are found in the nucleus. -Electrons are found outside the nucleus and travel in a pattern that occupies the rest of the atom’s volume. -Electrons are said to form a region of space called an electron cloud . This electron cloud accounts for the majority of the volume of an atom. Table 4.1
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Internet chpt 04 - Page of 7 1 CHM 1120 Dr. Adams CHM 1120...

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